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Article

How Can Blockchain Technology Accelerate Energy Efficiency Interventions? A Use Case Comparison

1
UNEP DTU Partnership, Department of Technology, Management and Economics, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen Ø, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
2
Technology and Innovation Management, Technical University Berlin, 10623 Berlin, Germany
3
Center for Entrepreneurship, Technical University of Denmark, DTU, 2400 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(22), 5869; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13225869
Received: 22 September 2020 / Revised: 3 November 2020 / Accepted: 5 November 2020 / Published: 10 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Section I: Energy Economics and Policy)
This paper qualitatively evaluates the application of blockchain technology for three energy efficiency use cases. To achieve the Sustainable Development Agenda, energy efficiency improvements have to double by 2030. However, the adoption of energy efficiency interventions is slow due to several market barriers. Blockchain technology is a nascent technology with the potential to address these barriers or even fundamentally change energy system designs, by enabling transparent, decentralised, and tamper-resilient systems. Nevertheless, a blockchain application comes with trade-offs and needs to be considered on a case by case basis. In this paper, we examine the benefits and constraints of a blockchain application for three different approaches to achieving energy efficiency: (i) peer-to-peer (P2P) energy trading; (ii) White Certificate Scheme (WCS); and (iii) Energy Service Companies (ESCOs). For each of these cases, we apply a decision framework to assess blockchain feasibility and outline a potential blockchain-based design. The analysis shows that blockchain functions are case dependent and that an application creates different governance and system designs due to varying case characteristics. We discuss how the identified blockchain adoption barriers can be overcome and stress the need for policy action to advance the development of pilot studies. By decentralising system governance, blockchain enables innovative designs that can accelerate the implementation of energy efficiency interventions. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy efficiency; blockchain; market barriers; energy efficiency obligations; white certificate scheme (WCS); energy service companies (ESCOs); peer-to-peer (P2P); energy trading; decision framework energy efficiency; blockchain; market barriers; energy efficiency obligations; white certificate scheme (WCS); energy service companies (ESCOs); peer-to-peer (P2P); energy trading; decision framework
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MDPI and ACS Style

Schletz, M.; Cardoso, A.; Prata Dias, G.; Salomo, S. How Can Blockchain Technology Accelerate Energy Efficiency Interventions? A Use Case Comparison. Energies 2020, 13, 5869. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13225869

AMA Style

Schletz M, Cardoso A, Prata Dias G, Salomo S. How Can Blockchain Technology Accelerate Energy Efficiency Interventions? A Use Case Comparison. Energies. 2020; 13(22):5869. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13225869

Chicago/Turabian Style

Schletz, Marco, Ana Cardoso, Gabriela Prata Dias, and Søren Salomo. 2020. "How Can Blockchain Technology Accelerate Energy Efficiency Interventions? A Use Case Comparison" Energies 13, no. 22: 5869. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13225869

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