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Article

Biorefinery of the Olive Tree—Production of Sugars from Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Olive Stone Pretreated by Alkaline Extrusion

Biofuels Unit, Energy Department—CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid, Spain
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Energies 2020, 13(17), 4517; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13174517
Received: 15 July 2020 / Revised: 21 August 2020 / Accepted: 25 August 2020 / Published: 1 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biorefinery Based on Waste Biomass)
This work addresses for the first time the study of olive stone (OS) biomass pretreatment by reactive extrusion technology using NaOH as the chemical agent. It is considered as a first step in the biological conversion process of the carbohydrates contained in the material into bio-based products. OS is a sub-product of the olive oil extraction process that could be used in a context of a multi-feedstock and multi-product biorefinery encompassing all residues generated around the olive oil production sector. OS biomass is pretreated in a twin-screw extruder at varying temperatures—100, 125 and 150 °C and NaOH/biomass ratios of 5% and 15% (dry weight basis), in order to estimate the effectiveness of the process to favour the release of sugars by enzymatic hydrolysis. The results show that alkaline extrusion is effective in increasing the sugar release from OS biomass compared to the raw material, being necessary to apply conditions of 15% NaOH/biomass ratio and 125 °C to attain the best carbohydrate conversion rates of 55.5% for cellulose and 57.7% for xylan in relation to the maximum theoretical achievable. Under these optimal conditions, 31.57 g of total sugars are obtained from 100 g of raw OS. View Full-Text
Keywords: lignocellulosic biomass; extrusion; pretreatment; olive oil industry; sub-product; fermentable sugars lignocellulosic biomass; extrusion; pretreatment; olive oil industry; sub-product; fermentable sugars
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MDPI and ACS Style

Doménech, P.; Duque, A.; Higueras, I.; Iglesias, R.; Manzanares, P. Biorefinery of the Olive Tree—Production of Sugars from Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Olive Stone Pretreated by Alkaline Extrusion. Energies 2020, 13, 4517. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13174517

AMA Style

Doménech P, Duque A, Higueras I, Iglesias R, Manzanares P. Biorefinery of the Olive Tree—Production of Sugars from Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Olive Stone Pretreated by Alkaline Extrusion. Energies. 2020; 13(17):4517. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13174517

Chicago/Turabian Style

Doménech, Pablo, Aleta Duque, Isabel Higueras, Raquel Iglesias, and Paloma Manzanares. 2020. "Biorefinery of the Olive Tree—Production of Sugars from Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Olive Stone Pretreated by Alkaline Extrusion" Energies 13, no. 17: 4517. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13174517

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