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Open AccessArticle

An Alertness-Adjustable Cloud/Fog IoT Solution for Timely Environmental Monitoring Based on Wildfire Risk Forecasting

1
Department of Informatics, Ionian University, 49100 Corfu, Greece
2
Department of Informatics and Telecommunications, University of Ioannina, 45110 Arta, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(14), 3693; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13143693
Received: 15 June 2020 / Revised: 10 July 2020 / Accepted: 14 July 2020 / Published: 17 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT and Sensor Networks in Industry and Society)
Internet of Things (IoT) appliances, especially those realized through wireless sensor networks (WSNs), have been a dominant subject for heavy research in the environmental and agricultural sectors. To address the ever-increasing demands for real-time monitoring and sufficiently handle the growing volumes of raw data, the cloud/fog computing paradigm is deemed a highly promising solution. This paper presents a WSN-based IoT system that seamlessly integrates all aforementioned technologies, having at its core the cloud/fog hybrid network architecture. The system was intensively validated using a demo prototype in the Ionian University facilities, focusing on response time, an important metric of future smart applications. Further, the developed prototype is able to autonomously adjust its sensing behavior based on the criticality of the prevailing environmental conditions, regarding one of the most notable climate hazards, wildfires. Extensive experimentation verified its efficiency and reported on its alertness and highly conforming characteristics considering the use-case scenario of Corfu Island’s 2019 fire risk severity. In all presented cases, it is shown that through fog leveraging it is feasible to contrive significant delay reduction, with high precision and throughput, whilst controlling the energy consumption levels. Finally, a user-driven web interface is highlighted to accompany the system; it is capable of augmenting the data curation and visualization, and offering real-time wildfire risk forecasting based on Chandler’s burning index scoring. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental monitoring; precision agriculture; Internet of Things; wireless sensor networks; cloud/fog computing; fire risk forecasting; Chandler burning index; wildfires environmental monitoring; precision agriculture; Internet of Things; wireless sensor networks; cloud/fog computing; fire risk forecasting; Chandler burning index; wildfires
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tsipis, A.; Papamichail, A.; Angelis, I.; Koufoudakis, G.; Tsoumanis, G.; Oikonomou, K. An Alertness-Adjustable Cloud/Fog IoT Solution for Timely Environmental Monitoring Based on Wildfire Risk Forecasting. Energies 2020, 13, 3693. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13143693

AMA Style

Tsipis A, Papamichail A, Angelis I, Koufoudakis G, Tsoumanis G, Oikonomou K. An Alertness-Adjustable Cloud/Fog IoT Solution for Timely Environmental Monitoring Based on Wildfire Risk Forecasting. Energies. 2020; 13(14):3693. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13143693

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tsipis, Athanasios; Papamichail, Asterios; Angelis, Ioannis; Koufoudakis, George; Tsoumanis, Georgios; Oikonomou, Konstantinos. 2020. "An Alertness-Adjustable Cloud/Fog IoT Solution for Timely Environmental Monitoring Based on Wildfire Risk Forecasting" Energies 13, no. 14: 3693. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13143693

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