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Article

Frequency Stability Evaluation in Low Inertia Systems Utilizing Smart Hierarchical Controllers

1
FOSS Research Centre for Sustainable Energy, University of Cyprus, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus
2
ENEA–Energy Technologies Department, 00196 Rome, Italy
3
ENEA–Energy Technologies Department, 80055 Portici (Naples), Italy
4
Department of Automation and System Analysis, Institute of Power Engineering (IEn) Gdańsk Division, PL80-870 Gdańsk, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(13), 3506; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13133506
Received: 8 May 2020 / Revised: 25 June 2020 / Accepted: 29 June 2020 / Published: 7 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Photovoltaic Energy Systems for a Sustainable Future)
The high penetration of the Renewable Energy Sources and other emerging technologies likely to be installed in future power grids will pose new operational challenges to grid operators. One of the main issues expected to affect the operation of the power grid is the impact of inverter-based technologies to the power system inertia and, hence, to system stability. Consequently, the main challenge of the future grid is the evaluation of the frequency stability in the presence of inverter-based systems and how the aforementioned technology can support frequency stability without the help of the rotating masses of the traditional power grid systems. To assess the above problem, this paper proposes a methodology to evaluate the frequency stability in a projection of the real distribution grid in Cyprus with the time horizon to be the year 2030. The power grid under investigation is evaluated with and without the presence of smart hierarchical controllers for providing support to the power system under disturbance conditions. The advanced controllers were applied to manage the available power resource in a fast and effective manner to maintain frequency within nominal levels. The controllers have been implemented in two hierarchical levels revealing useful responses for managing low-inertia networks. The first is set to act locally within a preselected area and the second level effectively supporting the different areas for optimal operation. After undertaking a significant number of simulations for time-series of one year, it was concluded from the results that the local control approach manages to minimize the frequency excursion effectively and influence all related attributes including the rate of change of frequency (RoCoF), frequency nadir and frequency zenith. View Full-Text
Keywords: frequency controller; frequency stability; low inertia; distributed energy resources; disturbance conditions frequency controller; frequency stability; low inertia; distributed energy resources; disturbance conditions
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MDPI and ACS Style

Patsalides, M.; Papadimitriou, C.N.; Efthymiou, V.; Ciavarella, R.; Di Somma, M.; Wakszyńska, A.; Kosmecki, M.; Graditi, G.; Valenti, M. Frequency Stability Evaluation in Low Inertia Systems Utilizing Smart Hierarchical Controllers. Energies 2020, 13, 3506. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13133506

AMA Style

Patsalides M, Papadimitriou CN, Efthymiou V, Ciavarella R, Di Somma M, Wakszyńska A, Kosmecki M, Graditi G, Valenti M. Frequency Stability Evaluation in Low Inertia Systems Utilizing Smart Hierarchical Controllers. Energies. 2020; 13(13):3506. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13133506

Chicago/Turabian Style

Patsalides, Minas, Christina N. Papadimitriou, Venizelos Efthymiou, Roberto Ciavarella, Marialaura Di Somma, Anna Wakszyńska, Michał Kosmecki, Giorgio Graditi, and Maria Valenti. 2020. "Frequency Stability Evaluation in Low Inertia Systems Utilizing Smart Hierarchical Controllers" Energies 13, no. 13: 3506. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13133506

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