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Open AccessArticle

Optimal Frequency Support of Variable-Speed Hydropower Plants at Telemark and Vestfold, Norway: Future Scenarios of Nordic Power System

1
School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, San Nicolás de los Garza 66455, NL, Mexico
2
Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Technology and Cybernetics, University of South-Eastern Norway, 3918 Porsgrunn, Norway
3
Gamesa Electric, 39200 Cantabria, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(13), 3377; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13133377
Received: 20 May 2020 / Revised: 17 June 2020 / Accepted: 19 June 2020 / Published: 1 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sources)
The integration of renewable resources is quickly growing in the Nordic power system (NPS), and it has led to increasing challenges for the operation and control of the NPS. Nordic countries require that the first-generation power plants have a more flexible operation regime to overcomes power imbalances coming from fluctuations of the demand and supply. This paper assesses optimal frequency support of variable-speed hydropower plants installed in Telemark and Vestfold, Norway, considering future scenarios of NPS. The total kinetic energy of the NPS is expected to be significantly reduced in the future. This paper looks into the implementation of hydropower units with a variable-speed operation regime and battery energy storage systems (BESS), equipped with fast-active power controller (FAPC) technology, to provide fast frequency response after a system frequency disturbance. The frequency support was formulated as an optimization process; therefore, the parameter of the FAPC was optimally calculated for future scenarios of low inertia in NPS. Three main futures scenarios were developed for technology penetration in the Vestfold and Telemark area in Norway. The simulation results showed that the integration variable-speed hydropower units and BESS technologies improved the frequency response even in low-kinetic energy scenarios. View Full-Text
Keywords: battery energy store system; converter-fed synchronous machine; doubly fed induction machine; fast active power injection controller; frequency control; frequency support; future Nordic power system; kinetic energy; variable-speed hydropower plants battery energy store system; converter-fed synchronous machine; doubly fed induction machine; fast active power injection controller; frequency control; frequency support; future Nordic power system; kinetic energy; variable-speed hydropower plants
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Acosta, M.N.; Pettersen, D.; Gonzalez-Longatt, F.; Peredo Argos, J.; Andrade, M.A. Optimal Frequency Support of Variable-Speed Hydropower Plants at Telemark and Vestfold, Norway: Future Scenarios of Nordic Power System. Energies 2020, 13, 3377.

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