A Laboratory Workflow for Characterization of Scaling Deposits in Thermal Wells
2. Pitzer Theory
4.1. SEM/EDS Analysis
4.2. ICP-MS Analysis
- The solid sample was crushed using a pestle and mortar to prepare powder.
- To prepare the liquid solution, 0.2 g of the powder was mixed with 8 mL hydrofluoric acid and 2 mL nitric acid in a container.
- The mixture was placed on a hotplate at 130 °C until it became completely dry.
- Five milliliters of hydrochloric acid and 5 mL nitric acid were added to the container. The mixture was heated at 130 °C until it became dry again.
- Ten milliliters of nitric acid (8N) was added to the container, and the mixture was heated at 130 °C for several hours. Acid washing and drying steps with different portions of hydrofluoric and nitric acids were performed to ensure that the scale deposits were completely dissolved in acids.
- To prepare a diluted sample, the mixture and deionized water were mixed in a 15 mL tube.
- One milliliter of the diluted sample was mixed with 0.1 mL nitric acid, 0.1 mL internal standards (In, Bi, and Sc), and 8.8 mL deionized water. These standards were added to ensure that the instrument accurately measured the ions concentration. The final solution was shaken thoroughly to prepare a uniform sample for the ICP-MS analysis.
4.3. Colorimetric Analysis
4.4. Dry Combustion Analysis
5. Results and Discussions
5.1. SI Prediction
5.2. Characterization of Scale Deposits
5.2.1. SEM/EDS Analysis
5.2.2. ICP-MS Analysis
5.2.3. Colorimetric Analysis
5.2.4. Dry Combustion Analysis
- The results of the scaling index prediction for minerals showed that Fe-based corrosion products and calcite/aragonite could be the main depositing materials.
- The SEM/EDS analysis visualized the heterogeneity of the scale deposits. The main components were organic matter, Fe-based corrosion products, Mg-based silicates and calcite/aragonite. The ICP-MS analysis agrees with the SEM/EDS visualization results.
- The results of the dry combustion analysis demonstrated the presence of organic matter in the scale deposits. The concentration of organic matter was not negligible; therefore, it is expected that the mixing of the organic matter and inorganic minerals leads to more complex structures of these deposits compared to pure inorganic deposits.
Conflicts of Interest
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|Alkalinity as HCO3||450||160||400||370||708|
|Type of Carbon||Concentration, w/w%|
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Habibi, A.; Fensky, C.E.; Roostaei, M.; Mahmoudi, M.; Fattahpour, V.; Zeng, H.; Sadrzadeh, M. A Laboratory Workflow for Characterization of Scaling Deposits in Thermal Wells. Energies 2020, 13, 3184. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13123184
Habibi A, Fensky CE, Roostaei M, Mahmoudi M, Fattahpour V, Zeng H, Sadrzadeh M. A Laboratory Workflow for Characterization of Scaling Deposits in Thermal Wells. Energies. 2020; 13(12):3184. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13123184Chicago/Turabian Style
Habibi, Ali, Charles E. Fensky, Morteza Roostaei, Mahdi Mahmoudi, Vahidoddin Fattahpour, Hongbo Zeng, and Mohtada Sadrzadeh. 2020. "A Laboratory Workflow for Characterization of Scaling Deposits in Thermal Wells" Energies 13, no. 12: 3184. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13123184