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Energies 2019, 12(8), 1445; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12081445

Assessment of Maximum Penetration Capacity of Photovoltaic Generator Considering Frequency Stability in Practical Stand-Alone Microgrid

1
School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Korea
2
Department of Electronic Engineering, Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Gumi-si 39177, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 February 2019 / Revised: 4 April 2019 / Accepted: 8 April 2019 / Published: 15 April 2019
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Abstract

In South Korea, the existing diesel generators are being replaced with renewable energy sources (RESs) in several stand-alone microgrids. However, their reliability and stability are not still guaranteed by fluctuations of the system caused by RESs, arising from unpredictable changes in environmental factors. Moreover, since the inertia that is originally provided by the diesel synchronous generators is reduced, the overall system becomes highly sensitive to frequency variations. As a result, the installation of RESs must be well planned while considering the upper limit of their installed capacity. In this paper, a new method for evaluating the maximum penetration capacity of photovoltaic (PV) generators to ensure the stable operation of a microgrid is proposed. For the analytical approach, two frequency stability indexes, which are the minimum instantaneous frequency and the quasi-steady-state (QSS) frequency after a disturbance, are used. The capacity of PV to be installed is limited by considering the characteristics of other generators. In addition, the efficiency of the energy storage system (ESS) is also analyzed to determine the optimal capacity of both PV and ESS. The effectiveness of the proposed method is firstly proven through the mathematical analysis. Then, case studies on a practical stand-alone microgrid in South Korea are carried out using a time-domain simulation based on the DIgSILENT PowerFactory® software. View Full-Text
Keywords: maximum penetration capacity; frequency stability; stand-alone microgrid; quasi-steady-state frequency; minimum instantaneous frequency; system inertia; photovoltaic generator; renewable energy source maximum penetration capacity; frequency stability; stand-alone microgrid; quasi-steady-state frequency; minimum instantaneous frequency; system inertia; photovoltaic generator; renewable energy source
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Joung, K.W.; Lee, H.-J.; Park, J.-W. Assessment of Maximum Penetration Capacity of Photovoltaic Generator Considering Frequency Stability in Practical Stand-Alone Microgrid. Energies 2019, 12, 1445.

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