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Analyzing the Impact of Energy, Export Variety, and FDI on Environmental Degradation in the Context of Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis: A Case Study of India

1
College of Economics and Trade, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China
2
Department of Economics, Kohat University of Science & Technology, Kohat 26000, Pakistan
3
Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Kohat University of Science & Technology, Kohat 26000, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(6), 1076; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12061076
Received: 21 February 2019 / Revised: 18 March 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 20 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Section B: Energy and Environment)
The economic size of the Indian economy and its status as one of the major global emitters of carbon emissions makes the country a good place to study the determinants of environmental degradation in India. The study aims at analyzing the impact of energy, export variety, and foreign direct investment (FDI) on environmental degradation in India in the context of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis. The long run relationship was found between variables of the study through a cointegration test, whereas long run estimates were obtained through cointegration and dynamic ordinary least squares (DOLS). Results of the study reveal that energy consumption, export variety, FDI, and income positively contributed to environmental degradation in India. Results also unveil that the EKC hypothesis does not exist in India. Causality analyses document unidirectional causality from income and FDI to environmental degradation, and bidirectional causality was witnessed between energy consumption and environmental degradation and between export variety and environmental degradation in the long run. The long run and the short run causality highlight that India has to forego the short run economic growth in order to improve its environmental quality and reduce global carbon emissions; however, it will not affect its long term economic development process. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon emissions; energy consumption; export variety; FDI; India; income carbon emissions; energy consumption; export variety; FDI; India; income
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MDPI and ACS Style

Adamu, T.M.; Haq, I.u.; Shafiq, M. Analyzing the Impact of Energy, Export Variety, and FDI on Environmental Degradation in the Context of Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis: A Case Study of India. Energies 2019, 12, 1076. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12061076

AMA Style

Adamu TM, Haq Iu, Shafiq M. Analyzing the Impact of Energy, Export Variety, and FDI on Environmental Degradation in the Context of Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis: A Case Study of India. Energies. 2019; 12(6):1076. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12061076

Chicago/Turabian Style

Adamu, Tijjani Musa, Ihtisham ul Haq, and Muhammad Shafiq. 2019. "Analyzing the Impact of Energy, Export Variety, and FDI on Environmental Degradation in the Context of Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis: A Case Study of India" Energies 12, no. 6: 1076. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12061076

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