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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Feasible Islanding Operation of Electric Networks with Large Penetration of Renewable Energy Sources considering Security Constraints

1
Electrical Engineering Department, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz 61357-831351, Iran
2
Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, 20133 Milan, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(3), 537; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030537
Received: 18 January 2019 / Revised: 2 February 2019 / Accepted: 3 February 2019 / Published: 8 February 2019
The high penetration of Renewable Energy Sources into electric networks shows new perspectives for the network’s management: among others, exploiting them as resources for network’s security in emergency situations. The paper focuses on the frequency stability of a portion of the grid when it remains islanded following a major fault. It proposes an optimization algorithm that considers the frequency reaction of the relevant components and minimizes the total costs of their shedding. The algorithm predicts the final frequency of the island and the active power profiles of the remaining generators and demands. It is formulated as a Mixed-Integer Non-Linear Programming problem and the high computation time due to a large-size problem is mitigated through a simplified linear version of the model that filters the integer variables. The algorithm is designed to operate on-line and preventively compute the optimal shedding actions to be engaged when islanding occurs. The algorithm is validated for a typical distribution grid: the minimum amount of shedding actions is obtained while the most frequency reactive resources are maintained in operation to assure a feasible frequency. Finally, time-domain simulations show that the optimal solution corresponds to the one at the end of the network’s transients following the islanding. View Full-Text
Keywords: islanded operation; frequency control; smart grids; optimization islanded operation; frequency control; smart grids; optimization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alavi, S.A.; Ilea, V.; Saffarian, A.; Bovo, C.; Berizzi, A.; Seifossadat, S.G. Feasible Islanding Operation of Electric Networks with Large Penetration of Renewable Energy Sources considering Security Constraints. Energies 2019, 12, 537.

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