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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle

Future Hydrogen Markets for Transportation and Industry: The Impact of CO2 Taxes

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Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Techno-Economic System Analysis (IEK-3), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Wilhelm-Johnen-Str., 52425 Jülich, Germany
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RWTH Aachen University, c/o Techno-Economic System Analysis (IEK-3), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Wilhelm-Johnen-Str., 52425 Jülich, Germany
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Institute for Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN), RWTH Aachen University, Mathieustr. 10, 52074 Aachen, Germany
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JARA-ENERGY, 52425 Jülich, Germany
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JARA-ENERGY, 52056 Aachen, Germany
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(24), 4707; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12244707
Received: 28 November 2019 / Revised: 5 December 2019 / Accepted: 6 December 2019 / Published: 10 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrogen Energy)
The technological lock-in of the transportation and industrial sector can be largely attributed to the limited availability of alternative fuel infrastructures. Herein, a countrywide supply chain analysis of Germany, spanning until 2050, is applied to investigate promising infrastructure development pathways and associated hydrogen distribution costs for each analyzed hydrogen market. Analyzed supply chain pathways include seasonal storage to balance fluctuating renewable power generation with necessary purification, as well as trailer- and pipeline-based hydrogen delivery. The analysis encompasses green hydrogen feedstock in the chemical industry and fuel cell-based mobility applications, such as local buses, non-electrified regional trains, material handling vehicles, and trucks, as well as passenger cars. Our results indicate that the utilization of low-cost, long-term storage and improved refueling station utilization have the highest impact during the market introduction phase. We find that public transport and captive fleets offer a cost-efficient countrywide renewable hydrogen supply roll-out option. Furthermore, we show that, at comparable effective carbon tax resulting from the current energy tax rates in Germany, hydrogen is cost-competitive in the transportation sector by the year 2025. Moreover, we show that sector-specific CO2 taxes are required to provide a cost-competitive green hydrogen supply in both the transportation and industrial sectors. View Full-Text
Keywords: market introduction; Bass model; GIS; supply chain analysis; niche market; FCEVs; fuel cell electric vehicles; fuel cell bus; fuel cell rail market introduction; Bass model; GIS; supply chain analysis; niche market; FCEVs; fuel cell electric vehicles; fuel cell bus; fuel cell rail
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Cerniauskas, S.; Grube, T.; Praktiknjo, A.; Stolten, D.; Robinius, M. Future Hydrogen Markets for Transportation and Industry: The Impact of CO2 Taxes. Energies 2019, 12, 4707.

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