Design of the Smart Grid Architecture According to Fractal Principles and the Basics of Corresponding Market Structure
1.1. Literature Review on the Popular Concepts of Smart Grids
1.2. Literature Review on the Use of Fractal Analysis in Smart Grids
3.1. Fractality in Smart Grids
3.1.1. Fractal Pattern
3.1.2. Fractal-Set of Smart Grids
3.2. LINK-Paradigm and the Associated Holistic Model
3.3. LINK-Based Holistic Architecture
- Producer link is a composition of an electricity production facility, be it a generator, photovoltaic, etc., its primary control (PC) or the producer interface. Primary control refers to control actions that are done locally (device level) based on predefined set-points. The actual values are measured locally and deviations from the set-points results in a signal that influences the valves, excitation current, transformer steps, etc. in a primary-controlled power plant, transformer, etc., such that the desired power is delivered or the desired voltage is reached;
- Storage link is a composition of a storage facility, be it the generator of a pump power plant, batteries, etc., its PC and the storage interface;
- Grid link is a composition of a grid part, called a link grid, with the corresponding secondary control (SC) and link interfaces. SC refers to control actions that are calculated based on the grid link control area. It fulfils a predefined objective function by respecting the dynamic grid constraints on the grid link boundaries and the static constraints of electrical appliances (PQ diagrams of generators, transformer rating, etc.). Dynamic grid constraints are the reactive and active power exchange on the grid link boundaries that are agreed from the corresponding grid link operators . The grid link contains SCs for both major entities of power systems—frequency and voltage. The SC algorithm fulfils technical issues and calculates the set points by respecting the dynamic constraints, which are necessary for stable and reliable operation. The link grid size is variable and is defined from the area where the secondary control is set up. Thus, a link grid may apply to a customer plant or even to a large high voltage grid area.
- The producer link operator operates each power plant regardless of technology and size (excluding very small power plants, for example PVs, installed on the customer side);
- The storage link operator operates each storage regardless of technology and size (excluding very small storage, for example batteries, installed on the customer side);
- The grid link operator operates the grid regardless of voltage level (excluding the customer grid). Customers themselves are responsible for the operation of all their home elements.
3.3.1. Compact Representation of the Control-Chain Strategy
- the voltage set-point for each transformer included on the HV link grid that has an on-load tap changer (OLTC);
- the var set point or the switch position of for all RDs connected on the HV link grid;
- the var set point for all generators connected on the HV link grid;
- the var set point for all neighbour HV, MV or LV grid links when available.
- the voltage set-point for the supplying transformer and for other transformers included on the MV link grid (e.g., 34.5 kV/11 kV, etc.) that have OLTC;
- the var set point or the switch position of for all RDs connected on the MV link grid;
- the var set point for all DGs connected on the MV link grid;
- the var set point for all neighbour MV or LV grid links when required, while respecting the var constraint on the border with HV .
- the var set point for all RDs connected on LV link grid;
- the var set point for all DGs connected on LV link grid;
- the var set point for all neighbour CP grid links when required, while respecting the var constraint on the border with MV .
3.3.2. Smart Grid and Market Harmonized Structures
- BGA is a geographical area consisting of one or more grid links with common market rules and has the same price for imbalance in the day-a-head market. In general, a TSO grid includes one grid link, while the grid of a DSO may include several grid links. Additionally, all grid links included in one BGA should be operated by one DSO (not by several DSOs).
- The geographic boundaries of BGA may vary considerably and are defined by the external boundaries of grid links contained in the BGA. Grid links may have two types of boundaries: external and internal. The external boundaries exist between different links, which have different owners or operators i.e., between TSO and DSO. They are subject to the data security and privacy because of the data exchanges between two different companies. Internal interfaces are set between different links, which have the same owner or operator, e.g., the same DSO. They are subject only to the data security .
- All electricity producers, storages and consumer, that are electrically connected to the grid links belonging to the BGA participate in the same balancing group.
- The grid link operators (GLO may be a TSO, DSO or LEC) should act as neutral market facilitators having the responsibility to control and independently balance power flow fluctuations in their own area and for the secure and reliable operation of the grid. Moreover, each GLO provides ancillary services to the neighbor grid link areas to ensure the reliability of the electricity supply.
3.3.3. Demand Response Process
3.3.4. Conservation Voltage Reduction in MV Level
Conflicts of Interest
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|Fractal Level||Grid||Active Power Appliances|
|Wire||Transformers||Reactive Power Devices||Appliances that Mainly Produce, Consume or Store Active Power|
|Level 1. → HV_ElA||Very long||Very large||Very large||Very large|
|Level 2. → MV_ElA||Long||Large||Large||Large|
|Level 3. → LV_ElA||Short||Medium||Medium||Medium|
|Level 4. → CP_ElA||Very short||Small?||Small||Small|
|Level 5. → Dev_ElA||Tiny||Tiny||Tiny||Tiny|
|Entire real Power System||Scaling Factors||Fractal of the Entire Power System|
|Zone||No. of Zones||No. of ElAs||Fractal Level|
|MV (Suppl. Substations)||300||50||6||Level 2MV|
|LV (Distr. Substations)||100,000||5,555.56||18||Level 3LV|
|CP (Customers)||4,000,000||55,555.56||72||Level 4CP|
|Dev. (Elec. Devices)||40,000,000||55,555.56||720||Level 5Dev|
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ILO, A. Design of the Smart Grid Architecture According to Fractal Principles and the Basics of Corresponding Market Structure. Energies 2019, 12, 4153. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12214153
ILO A. Design of the Smart Grid Architecture According to Fractal Principles and the Basics of Corresponding Market Structure. Energies. 2019; 12(21):4153. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12214153Chicago/Turabian Style
ILO, Albana. 2019. "Design of the Smart Grid Architecture According to Fractal Principles and the Basics of Corresponding Market Structure" Energies 12, no. 21: 4153. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12214153