Increasing penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) gives rise to the challenges in the secure operation of power systems. The EV charging loads should be distributed among charging stations in a fair and incentive-compatible manner while ensuring that power transmission and transformation facilities are not overloaded. This paper first proposes a charging right (or charging power ration) trading mechanism and model based on blockchain. Considering all kinds of random factors of charging station loads, we use Monte Carlo modeling to determine the charging demand of charging stations in the future. Based on the charging demand of charging stations, a charging station needs to submit the charging demand for a future period. The blockchain first distributes initial charging right in a just manner and ensures the security of facilities. Given that the charging urgency and elasticity differences vary by charging stations, all charging stations then proceed with double auction and peer-to-peer (P2P) transaction of charging right. Bids and offers are cleared via double auctions if bids are higher than offers. The remaining bids and offers are cleared via the P2P market. Then, this paper designs the charging right allocation and trading platform and smart contract based on the Ethernet blockchain to ensure the safety of the distribution network (DN) and the transparency and efficiency of charging right trading. Simulation results based on the Ethereum private blockchain show the fairness and efficiency of the proposed mechanism and the effectiveness of the method and the mechanism.
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