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Energy Consumption Analysis and Characterization of Healthcare Facilities in the United States

1
Department of Engineering & Technology, Southeast Missouri State University, Cape Girardeau, MO 63701, USA
2
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering Department, Kettering University, Flint, MI 48504, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(19), 3775; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12193775
Received: 13 August 2019 / Revised: 29 September 2019 / Accepted: 30 September 2019 / Published: 4 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Energy and Environment)
Healthcare facilities in the United States account for 4.8% of the total area in the commercial sector and are responsible for 10.3% of total energy consumption in this sector. The number of healthcare facilities increased by 22% since 2003, leading to a 21% rise in energy consumption and an 8% reduction in energy intensity per unit of area (544.8 kWh/m2). This study provides an analytical overview of the end-use energy consumption data in healthcare systems for hospitals in the United States. The energy intensity of the U.S. hospitals ranges from 640.7 kWh/m2 in Zone 5 (very hot) to 781.1 kWh/m2 in Zone 1 (very cold), with an average of 738.5 kWh/m2. This is approximately 2.6 times higher than that of other commercial buildings. High energy intensity in the healthcare facilities, particularly in hospitals, along with energy costs and associated environmental concerns make energy analysis crucial for this type of facility. The proposed analysis shows that U.S. healthcare facilities have higher energy intensity than those of most other countries, especially the European ones. This necessitates the adoption of more energy-efficient approaches to the infrastructure and the management of healthcare facilities in the United States. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy analysis; healthcare; hospital; process; and non-process energy energy analysis; healthcare; hospital; process; and non-process energy
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Bawaneh, K.; Ghazi Nezami, F.; Rasheduzzaman, M.; Deken, B. Energy Consumption Analysis and Characterization of Healthcare Facilities in the United States. Energies 2019, 12, 3775.

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