Next Article in Journal
High-Pressure and Automatized System for Study of Natural Gas Hydrates
Previous Article in Journal
Techno-Economic Analysis of a Residential PV-Storage Model in a Distribution Network
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Efficiency Improvement of a Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) System Using Nanofluids

Department of Biosystems Engineering, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(16), 3063;
Received: 29 June 2019 / Revised: 2 August 2019 / Accepted: 6 August 2019 / Published: 9 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) Solar Systems)
PDF [5402 KB, uploaded 9 August 2019]


Many studies and considerable international efforts have gone into reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This study was carried out to improve the efficiency of flat-plate photovoltaic thermal (PVT) systems, which use solar energy to produce heat and electricity simultaneously. An efficiency analysis was performed with various flow rates of water as the working fluid. The flow rate, which affects the performance of the PVT system, showed the highest efficiency at 3 L/min compared with 1, 2, and 4 L/min. Additionally, the effects of nanofluids (CuO/water, Al2O3/water) and water as working fluids on the efficiency of the PVT system were investigated. The results showed that the thermal and electrical efficiencies of the PVT system using CuO/water as a nanofluid were increased by 21.30% and 0.07% compared to the water-based system, respectively. However, the increase in electrical efficiency was not significant because this increase may be due to measurement errors. The PVT system using Al2O3/water as a nanofluid improved the thermal efficiency by 15.14%, but there was no difference in the electrical efficiency between water and Al2O3/water-based systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: PVT system; flow rate; nanofluids; efficiency PVT system; flow rate; nanofluids; efficiency

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, J.H.; Hwang, S.G.; Lee, G.H. Efficiency Improvement of a Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) System Using Nanofluids. Energies 2019, 12, 3063.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top