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Open AccessReview

FACTS Providing Grid Services: Applications and Testing

School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Zografou, Greece
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(13), 2554;
Received: 17 May 2019 / Revised: 21 June 2019 / Accepted: 28 June 2019 / Published: 3 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HVDC/FACTS for Grid Services in Electric Power Systems)
PDF [7181 KB, uploaded 3 July 2019]


The role of flexible alternating current transmission systems (FACTSs) in the provision of grid services is becoming increasingly important, due to the massive integration of intermittent renewable energy sources, energy storage systems, and the decommissioning of thermal plants. A comprehensive literature review of grid services offered by FACTS is performed, focusing on the different grid services that they can provide, such as power flow control, reactive power control, voltage control, power quality improvement, harmonic mitigation, improvement of transient stability, and damping of inter-area and intra-area oscillations. These grid services need to be realistically and economically validated in suitable testing environments. A review of relevant standards, guides, and the literature is performed, which covers the entire range from functional specification and factory testing up to the field testing of FACTS. Advanced industry practices, such as controller hardware in the loop (CHIL) testing of FACTS controllers by the manufacturer, and recent trends, such as CHIL testing of replica controllers by the owner, are underlined. Limitations of conventional testing and CHIL testing are explained and the use of power hardware in the loop (PHIL) simulation for FACTS testing is discussed. CHIL and scaled-down PHIL tests on a transmission static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) are performed and a comparison of the results is presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: FACTS; grid services; CHIL; PHIL; lab testing; field testing; standards; STATCOM; replica; review FACTS; grid services; CHIL; PHIL; lab testing; field testing; standards; STATCOM; replica; review

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Kotsampopoulos, P.; Georgilakis, P.; Lagos, D.T.; Kleftakis, V.; Hatziargyriou, N. FACTS Providing Grid Services: Applications and Testing. Energies 2019, 12, 2554.

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