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Open AccessArticle

Fluid Retrofit for Existing Vapor Compression Refrigeration Systems and Heat Pumps: Evaluation of Different Models

Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, University of Duisburg-Essen, Thermodynamics, Lotharstr. 1, 47057 Duisburg, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This paper is an extended version of our paper published in 2018 Heat Powered Cycles Conference, Bayreuth, Germany, 16–19 September 2018; ISBN 978-0-9563329-6-7.
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2417;
Received: 25 April 2019 / Revised: 12 June 2019 / Accepted: 20 June 2019 / Published: 24 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Heat Power Cycles Conference 2018)
The global warming potential of many working fluids used nowadays for vapor compression refrigeration systems and heat pumps is very high. Many of such fluids, which are used in currently operating refrigerators and heat pumps, will have to be replaced. In order to avoid a redesign of the system, it would be very helpful if efficient and ecological alternative working fluids for a given plant could be found. With modern process simulation tools such a selection procedure seems possible. However, it remains unclear how detailed such a model of a concrete plant design has to be to obtain a reliable working fluid ranking. A vapor compression heat pump test-rig is used as an example and simulated by thermodynamic models with different levels of complexity to investigate this question. Experimental results for numerous working fluids are compared with models of different complexity. Simple cycle calculations, as often used in the literature, lead to incorrect results regarding the efficiency and are not recommended to find replacement fluids for existing plants. Adding a compressor model improves the simulations significantly and leads to reliable fluid rankings but this is not sufficient to judge the adequacy of the heat exchanger sizes and whether a given cooling or heating task can be fulfilled with a certain fluid. With a model of highest complexity, including an extensive model for the heat exchangers, this question can also be answered. View Full-Text
Keywords: refrigerants; retrofit; process simulation; replacement fluids; experiments refrigerants; retrofit; process simulation; replacement fluids; experiments
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Roskosch, D.; Venzik, V.; Atakan, B. Fluid Retrofit for Existing Vapor Compression Refrigeration Systems and Heat Pumps: Evaluation of Different Models. Energies 2019, 12, 2417.

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