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Open AccessArticle

Water Mixtures as Working Fluids in Organic Rankine Cycles

University of Brescia, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, via Branze 38, 25123 Brescia, Italy
Politecnico di Milano, Department of Energy, via Lambruschini 4, 20156 Milano, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The original paper was presented in: Bombarda P., Di Marcoberardino G., Invernizzi C., Iora P. and Manzolini G., Water mixtures as working fluids in organic Rankine cycles. In Proceedings of the Heat Powered Cycles Conference 2018, Bayreuth, Germany, 16–19 September 2018; Riehl, R., Preißinger, M., Eames, I., Tierney, M., Eds.; ISBN 978-0-9563329-6-7.
Energies 2019, 12(13), 2629;
Received: 12 May 2019 / Revised: 16 June 2019 / Accepted: 4 July 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Heat Power Cycles Conference 2018)
This work explores the possibility to adopt in organic Rankine cycle (ORC) plants mixtures of water (acting as solvent) plus an organic compound (acting as solute) as the working fluid. Initially an evaluation of the thermodynamic properties of the mixtures is performed, in order to assess their properties, and to point out the molar fractions which entail a near-azeotropic behaviour. Four species from three different classes of chemical compounds are investigated: 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol and n-butanol for alcohols, where the first is fluorinated, acetonitrile for nitrile class and 2-methylpyrazine as a heterocyclic aromatic compound. Simultaneously, the thermal stability of the pure substances considered as the possible solute for the mixtures is experimentally investigated in order to estimate the temperature applicability range. The ORC plant performance, from a low-enthalpy geothermal heat source (hot water stream from 100 to 200 °C), adopting the selected mixtures as the working fluid is finally evaluated, and the analysis includes a preliminary discussion on the turbine design; results are compared with respect to the reference case of a hypothetical plant adopting water as the working fluid. View Full-Text
Keywords: ORC; working fluids; water mixtures; near-azeotropic mixtures; thermal stability ORC; working fluids; water mixtures; near-azeotropic mixtures; thermal stability
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Invernizzi, C.; Binotti, M.; Bombarda, P.; Di Marcoberardino, G.; Iora, P.; Manzolini, G. Water Mixtures as Working Fluids in Organic Rankine Cycles. Energies 2019, 12, 2629.

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