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Energies 2018, 11(8), 2165; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11082165

Internet of Energy Approach for Sustainable Use of Electric Vehicles as Energy Storage of Prosumer Buildings

1
Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, FI-00076 Espoo, Finland
2
Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 19 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Smart Grid)
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Abstract

Vehicle-to-building (V2B) technology permits bypassing the power grid in order to supply power to a building from electric vehicle (EV) batteries in the parking lot. This paper investigates the hypothesis stating that the increasing number of EVs on our roads can be also beneficial for making buildings sustainably greener on account of using V2B technology in conjunction with local photovoltaic (PV) generation. It is assumed that there is no local battery storage other than EVs and that the EV batteries are fully available for driving, so that the EVs batteries must be at the intended state of charge at the departure time announced by the EV driver. Our goal is to exploit the potential of the EV batteries capacity as much as possible in order to permit a large area of solar panels, so that even on sunny days all PV power can be used to supply the building needs or the EV charging at the parking lot. A system architecture and collaboration protocols that account for uncertainties in EV behaviour are proposed. The proposed approach is proven in simulation covering one year period for three locations in different climatic regions of the US, resulting in the electricity bill reductions of 15.8%, 9.1% and 4.9% for California, New Jersey and Alaska, respectively. These results are compared to state-of-the-art research in combining V2B with PV or wind power generation. It is concluded that the achieved electricity bill reductions are superior to the state-of-the-art, because previous work is based on problem formulations that exploit only a part of the potential EV battery capacity. View Full-Text
Keywords: internet of energy; smartgrid; distributed energy storage; electric vehicles; vehicle-to-building; simulation; vehicle-to-grid; prosumer; photovoltaic generation internet of energy; smartgrid; distributed energy storage; electric vehicles; vehicle-to-building; simulation; vehicle-to-grid; prosumer; photovoltaic generation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Nefedov, E.; Sierla, S.; Vyatkin, V. Internet of Energy Approach for Sustainable Use of Electric Vehicles as Energy Storage of Prosumer Buildings. Energies 2018, 11, 2165.

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