On Energy Management Control of a PV-Diesel-ESS Based Microgrid in a Stand-Alone Context
- In terms of control, an IMC strategy based on resonant regulator is proposed.
- In terms of energy management, the EMC is tested first using a standard SOC profile emulating the microgrid different states. Then real data are used to simulate the load and solar radiations. Furthermore, the second case SOC profile is estimated using the system parameters and the extracted data.
- The proposed ESS control strategy, IMC operating mode, and PMC one are experimentally validated.
2. System Structure and Modeling
2.1. PVG Model
2.2. DG Model
2.3. Battery Model
3. Energy Management Control and Supervisory Algorithm
3.1. ESS Control Strategy
3.2. Isolated Mode Control (IMC)
3.3. Parallel Mode Control (PMC)
3.4. Supervisory Algorithm
3.4.1. ESS Supervision
3.4.2. DG Supervision
- The DG start-up must be load-out and delayed with about 3 to 5 seconds after it starts to avoid operation during its transient.
- When solicited, the DG runs at its nominal point in all possible operating scenarios regardless load changes.
- The DG will stop only if the SOC reaches its maximum.
3.4.3. PVG Supervision
3.4.4. Load Supervision
- When the DG does not start.
- When there is a malfunction in the DC/AC converter. Therefore, the energy surplus produced by the DG is not transferred to the ESS and the SOC continues to decrease.
- When there is a malfunction in the DC/DC buck/boost converter related to the ESS.
4. Simulation Results
4.1.1. Emulated SOC
- From 0 to 0.2 s, the batteries are charged (SOC > SOCmax) and the PVG power produced exceeds the load requirement. The LP mode is then activated.
- From 0.8 to 1.2 s, the SOC riches its lower limit value SOCmin. The DG is solicited with a nominal operating regime, assumed equal to 8kW (Figure 10a), to supply the load power and charge the ESS. The system is then in the PMC operating mode until the SOC riches the limit value SOCmax.
- From 1.2 to 1.6 s, the SOC riches its upper limit value SOCmax. The IMC operating mode is then reactivated.
- From 1.6 to 1.8 s the SOC riches its lower limit value SOCmin. The PMC operating mode is then reactivated.
- From 1.8 to 2 s, the SOC is less than 20%. The supervisory algorithm disconnects then the load with the lowest priority (P3) and the system is in a low state of charge (LSOC) operating mode.
- From 2 to 2.2 s, the ESS continues its discharging (10% < SOC < 15%) and the P2 load is then disconnected. P1 is the load that is still connected to the system that is in a very low state of charge (VLSOC) operating mode.
- At 2.2 s, the SOC drops below 10%. All the loads are disconnected and the system is in the disconnection (DISC) mode.
4.1.2. Estimated SOC
- One second of simulation corresponds to one hour of operation. For a simulation step of 5 µs, this allows assuming a constant ESS current during 0.018 s.
- The SOC is now estimated (Figure 6b) and the microgrid is simulated for 3 days (72 s of simulation).
- The system has been simulated using the MATLAB-Simulink environment for a daily radiation profile of the Adrar region and the load profile of three Saharan cabins, as previously mentioned. The achieved simulation results are given by Figure 7b, Figure 8b, Figure 9b, Figure 10b and Figure 11b. Here, it can be noticed that:
- From 0 to 40 h, 25% < SOC < 90%. Both PVG and ESS provide the load required power. The system is then in the IMC operating mode with 40 hours of autonomy.
- From 40 to 48 h, the SOC riches its lower limit value SOCmin. The DG is solicited with a nominal operating regime to supply the load power and charge the ESS. The system is then in the PMC operating mode until the SOC riches the limit value SOCmax.
- From 48 to 72 h, the ESS is charged (SOC = 90%). The DG is disconnected, the IMC operating mode is reactivated and the system operating cycle is therefore 2 days.
4.1.3. Stability Analysis
5. Experimental Validations
5.1.1. ESS Control Validation
5.1.2. IMC Validation
5.1.3. PMC Validation
Conflicts of Interest
|TV||1||80 W||5 h||80 W||400 Wh|
|Fridge||1||800 W||4 h||800 W||3200 Wh|
|Lights||1||40 W||1 h||40 W||40 Wh|
|Neon light||2||40 W||8 h||80 W||640 Wh|
|Bathroom lamp||1||40 W||2 h||40 W||80 Wh|
|Water heater||1||800 W||2 h||800 W||1600 Wh|
|Computer||1||100 W||4 h||100 W||400 Wh|
|Air conditioner||1||1000 W||3 h||1000 W||3000 Wh|
|Coffee maker||1||150 W||1 h||150 W||150 Wh|
|Total||3090 W||9510 Wh|
Symbols and Abbreviations
|I0||Diode saturation current;|
|q||Coulomb constant (1.602 × 10−19 C)|
|k||Boltzmann’s constant (1.38 × 10−23 J/K)|
|T||Cell temperature (K);|
|Rs||Series cell resistance (Ω);|
|Rp||Parallel cell resistance (Ω);|
|Ns||Number of series panel;|
|Np||Number of parallel panel;|
|Ipv, Vpv||PV array output current and voltage (V);|
|G||Solar radiation (W/m2);|
|SOC||State of Charge;|
|h||Number of engine cycles;|
|MPPT||Maximum Power Point Tracking;|
|ESS||Energy Storage System;|
|dq||Direct- and Quadrature axes;|
|We||System angular frequency;|
|DT||Total friction coefficient;|
|P, Q||Active power and reactive power;|
|Tmec||Diesel engine torque;|
|C||Fuel flow control signal;|
|τ1||Diesel engine delay time;|
|τ2||Actuator time constant;|
|P&O||Perturb & Observ;|
|SVM||Space Vector Modulation;|
|THD||Total Harmonic Distortion.|
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|ESS Parameters||PVG Parameters|
|Battery capacity||12 V, 150 Ah||PVG Rated power||3.2 kW|
|Number of batteries||12 in serial||Panel rated power||135 W|
|l||0.05 H||DG Parameters|
|ksi||1/sqrt(2)||DG Rated power||10 kVA (8 kW)|
|tr||0.01 s||τ1||0. 3 s|
|IMC Parameters||PMC Parameters|
|c0||1.38 × 1014||Kif||−522.23|
|c1||6.58 × 1011||Kpf||−28.34|
|c2||8.96 × 108||Filter Parameters|
|c3||9.09 × 105||Rf||8.66 Ω,|
|d0||2.21 × 108||Lf||46 mH|
|d1||4.60 × 104||Cf||30 μF|
|PVG-DG-ESS (Proposed EMC)||DG only|
|DG Operation (%)||16.66||10|
|Consumed fuel (Lbs)||36||216|
|Fuel total cost (US$)||12.52||75.13|
|PVG-DG-ESS (Proposed EMC)||PVG-ESS Microgrid (IMC)|
|Number of cycle||Operation time: 8 hours = 16.66%|
|Number of cycles/OC||Operation time: OC = 48 hours|
|8.4 × 6 = 50.4||8.4 × 5 + 3 = 45|
|Wear cost gain (%/OC)||10.71|
|Wear cost gain (%/h)||0.223|
|1||PC computer||5||Scope||10||Three-phase inverter|
|2||PCI6052E;||6||voltages and currents measurement||11||DC/DC converter’s|
|3||PV panels||7||Resistive load;||12||ESS (battery).|
|4||Currents measurement||8, 9||LC filters;|
|c0||1.38×1014||KiPLL||−295.17||Rf||8.66 Ω,||Cbat||12 V, 100 Ah|
|c1||6.58 × 1011||KpPLL||−1.37||Lf||46 mH||CDC||0.047 F|
|c2||8.96 × 108||Kif||−522.23||Cf||30 μF||UDC||48 V|
|c3||9.09 × 105||Kpf||−28.34|
|d0||2.21 × 108|
|d1||4.60 × 104|
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Belila, A.; Benbouzid, M.; Berkouk, E.-M.; Amirat, Y. On Energy Management Control of a PV-Diesel-ESS Based Microgrid in a Stand-Alone Context. Energies 2018, 11, 2164. https://doi.org/10.3390/en11082164
Belila A, Benbouzid M, Berkouk E-M, Amirat Y. On Energy Management Control of a PV-Diesel-ESS Based Microgrid in a Stand-Alone Context. Energies. 2018; 11(8):2164. https://doi.org/10.3390/en11082164Chicago/Turabian Style
Belila, Ahmed, Mohamed Benbouzid, El-Madjid Berkouk, and Yassine Amirat. 2018. "On Energy Management Control of a PV-Diesel-ESS Based Microgrid in a Stand-Alone Context" Energies 11, no. 8: 2164. https://doi.org/10.3390/en11082164