Compression ignition engines used as marine engines are the most efficient internal combustion engines. They are well-established products, and millions are already on the market. Water-in-MDO (marine diesel oil) emulsions are the best alternative fuel for compression ignition engines and can be utilised with the existing setup of 2.0 L automotive common rail direct injection (CRDI) engines. They have benefits for the simultaneous reduction of both NOx
and smoke (black carbon). Furthermore, they have a significant impact on the improvement of combustion efficiency. Micro-explosions are the most important phenomenon of water-in-diesel emulsions inside an internal combustion engine chamber. They affect both the emission reduction and combustion efficiency improvements directly and indirectly in accordance with the brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) and rpm. Owing to the influence of micro-emulsions on the combustion and emissions of water-in-diesel emulsion fuel, the reduction ratios of NOx
and smoke in a used engine are approximately 30% and 80%, respectively. The effect of the operating parameters on micro-emulsions is presented.
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