Mitigation of Power Quality Issues Due to High Penetration of Renewable Energy Sources in Electric Grid Systems Using ThreePhase APF/STATCOM Technologies: A Review
Abstract
:1. Introduction
2. Harmonics and International Standards
3. Methods for Mitigating Harmonics
3.1. Shunt PFs
 
 PFs require a separate filter for each harmonic current, and their filtering range is limited.
 
 PFs allow only one component (either a harmonic or a fundamental current component) to pass at a time.
 
 Large amounts of harmonic current saturate or overload the filter and cause series resonance with the AC source, thereby resulting in excessive harmonic flow into the PFs.
 
 PFs amplify sourceside harmonic contents because of the impedance in the source of parallel and series negative resonances between the grid and the filter [29].
 
 The design parameters of PFs in an AC system depend on the system operating frequency, which changes around its nominal value according to variable load conditions.
 
 PFs only eliminate frequencies to which they are tuned, thus resulting in limited compensation, large size, and tuning issues.
3.2. Shunt APFs
3.3. STATCOM
3.3.1. Multilevel PVSTATCOM Applications in GridConnected Systems
3.3.2. Wind Turbine STATCOM (WTSTATCOM) Applications in GridConnected Systems
4. Standard Classification of Shunt APFs
Shunt Hybrid APFs
 
 The initial installation cost is high.
 
 The control structure and design are considerably complex. Moreover, the increased harmonics and losses complicate filter control.
 
 With rapid dynamic current response and highpower rating system demand, the APF presents a design tradeoff.
5. Advanced Classification of APF/STATCOM
5.1. AC–AC Power Converter Topology
5.2. ParallelInverter APF Topology
5.3. Split DCLeg Inverter Topology
6. APFs/STATCOM Control Techniques
7. Advanced Control Techniques for APFs/STATCOM
7.1. Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation
7.2. Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation
8. Performance Evaluation of APF/STATCOM System
9. Key Analysis on Configuration and Control Structure
9.1. Limitations in Configuration Structure
 
 In B4 inverters, the third phase is connected clearly to the middle point or neutral point of the DClink capacitors. The DCbus current directly charges one of the capacitors and discharges the other. These dynamics unbalance current and voltage loading between the capacitors that discharge at a faster rate than the other, thus causing high current ripple in the imbalanced output waveform [206].
 
 To compensate for the DCbus voltage fluctuation issues [207], the removed singleleg terminal is connected to the negative terminal of the DCbus PWMVSI inverter and stops the imbalanced charging of the DClink capacitors. Furthermore, the AC film capacitor stores the power ripples connected to the AC terminals to stop the flow of decoupling power ripples and provide balanced output currents and voltages [208].
 
 A large DClink voltage variation is shown in B8 split DCleg converter applications. Both systems are operated at the same frequency and synchronized; thus, no fundamental current flows through the shared DC link. This outcome is a limitation in addition to the low AC voltage of the individual B4 power converter coupled with the shared DClink capacitor.
 
 In the threephase system, a phase circulating current [209] flows through the DClink capacitors. Thus, the capacitors are exposed to lowfrequency harmonics, thereby limiting the use of high DClink capacitor values. The AC–AC power converter configuration presents superior overall performance than the DCbus midpoint configuration in terms of low THD and harmonic compensation capability because of the balanced current and voltage, as well as the minimum current ripple in the imbalanced output waveform.
9.2. Limitations in Control Structure Techniques
 
 The need for voltage feedforward and crosscoupling in SRF is the main limitation of the control structure. The phase angle of the grid voltage is required to start the control operation.
 
 In the stationary reference frame, the PR controller reduces the complexity of the control structure in terms of current regulation as it has no need of the phase angle, unlike the dqframe.
 
 The adaptive band hysteresis controller increases the complexity of the control structure in the natural reference frame. However, the deadbeat controller simplifies the control scheme. Therefore, an individual control is required in each phase in case of individual phase PLLs and grid voltage to generate the current reference.
 
 The hysteresis and deadbeat controllers do not consider loworder harmonics in the implementation process in harmonic compensators due to their fast dynamics.
 
 In practical structures, both controllers require a sampling capability’s hardware to compensate the positive sequence and need two filters, two transformation modules, and one controller, thus limiting its practical application in the dqframe.
 
9.3. Key Findings
 (1)
 In parallel inverter topology, the output voltage per phase at different frequencies generates transitions, which block the forbidden states. This voltage effectively limits the range of reference amplitudes and phase shifts.
 (2)
 Generally, in reduced switch count power converters, the modulation strategy adopted is SPWM to switch and compensate for the DCbus voltage fluctuation issues [214]. By contrast, in reduced switch count converters, the phase shift does not track the threephase balance reference signal in the symmetry order.
 (3)
 Switch reduction generally leads to interdependencies between AC input and output frequencies, unlike fullbridge converters. This restriction limits the references for modulation in operating the power converters at the same frequency. Voltage doubling and semiconductor stress are not issues in the B4 converter, unlike in the nineswitch H6 converter, because of the favorable maximum modulation ratio of unity [215].
 (4)
 Reduced switch count (fourswitch) topologies face more limitations in their switching states than conventional sixswitch converters. Findings indicate that the removed leg terminal that is connected to either the upper positive DClink terminal or the lower negative DClink terminal is not achievable.
 (5)
 In the B6 converter, two switching states, (0, 0) and (1, 1), are stated as zero vectors, which stop the flow of the current toward the load. In the B4 converter, the current flows even in zerovector states. Therefore, in two other switching states, (0, 1) and (1, 0), the resulting uncontrolled current flows through the common phase because of the direct connection between the DClink capacitor and the AC terminal.
 (6)
 The PLL synchronizes the power inverter modulation to the power grid and provides freedom in designing the modulation index caused by phasing the angle in between the grids and by modulating waves to adjust the maximum magnitude for unity output.
 (7)
 Eliminating the active switches creates an unequal thermal distribution among the remaining switches at the expense of reduced structure, conduction losses, switching losses, and low system cost.
 (8)
 In the split converter, the thirdphase current flows directly through DClink capacitors, thus exposing the converter to lowfrequency harmonics, which need a highvaluerated capacitor.
 (9)
 In the twoleg rectifier (multiply by 2/pi = 0.6), the output power gain is lower than that of the threeleg rectifier (multiply by 1.6), thereby increasing the current rating of the active switching components.
10. Upcoming Trends
11. Conclusions
Author Contributions
Acknowledgments
Conflicts of Interest
Abbreviations
APF  Active power filters 
B4  Fourswitch inverter 
CSI  Currentfedtype inverters 
CHB  Cascaded Hbridge 
DFT  Discrete Fourier transform 
DSP  Digital signal processor 
dSpace  Digital Signal Processor for Applied and Control Engineering 
DSTATCOM  Distribution STATCOM 
DQ  Synchronous Fundamental Frame 
DVR  Dynamic voltage restorer 
ESS  Energy storage system 
FACTS  Flexible AC transmission system 
FFT  Fast Fourier transform 
GPGA  Field programmable gate array 
HAPFs  Hybrid APF 
HF  High frequency 
HPF  High pass filter 
HV  High voltage 
IEEE  Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 
IEC  International Electrotechnical Commission 
IGBT  Insulatedgate bipolar transistors 
ITC  Indirect torque control 
Ki  Integral gain 
Kp  Proportional gain 
LPF  Low pass filter 
LVRT  Lowvoltage ride through 
MLI  Multilevel inverter 
MOSFET  Metaloxidesemiconductor fieldeffect transistor 
MPP  Maximum power point 
PCC  Point of common coupling 
PF  Passive filter 
PI  Proportional integral controller 
PLL  Phase locked loop 
PQ  Instantaneous power theory 
PV  Photovoltaic 
PWM  Pulse width modulation 
RC  Repetitive Controller 
RDFT  Recursive discrete Fourier Transform 
SAPF  Shunt active power filter 
SBD  Schottky barrier diode 
SHE  Selective harmonic elimination 
SiC  Silicon carbide 
SMC  Sliding Mode Control 
SOFC  Solid oxide fuel call 
SPWM  Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation 
SRF  Synchronousreferenceframe 
STATCOM  static compensator 
SVC  Static voltampere reactive VAR compensator 
SVM  Space vector modulation 
SVPWM  Space vector Pulse Width Modulation 
TCR  Thyristorcontrolled resistor 
THD  Total Harmonic Distortion 
UPQC  Unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) 
VSC  Voltage Source Converter 
VSI  Voltagefedtype inverters 
WT  Wind turbine 
1P2W  Singlephase twowire 
3P3W  Threephase threewire 
3P4W  Threephase fourwire 
3P4L  Three phase fourleg 
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Category  Shunt APF  Series APF 

Connection with system  Parallel with distribution system  Connected in series with distribution system 
Action  Current source  Voltage source 
Filter rating  Voltage rated at full load rating Current rating comprises partially harmonic and partly reactive current components  Current rated at full load rating Voltage rating is partially compensated voltage component 
Functioning  Harmonic load current filtering Compensation for reactive current Mitigation of current unbalance  Mitigation of voltage harmonics, sag, and swells Mitigation of current harmonics Compensation of reactive current Mitigation of current unbalances 
Characteristics of compensation  Source impedance exerts no effect on compensation for current source loads.  Source and load impedance exert no effect on compensation for voltage source loads. 
Application  Injected current may cause excess current when applied to a voltage source load.  A lowimpedance parallel branch (for improvement of power factor) when working with current source load 
Load considered  Nonlinear/inductive current source loads or harmonics containing current source loads  Nonlinear/capacitive voltage source loads or harmonics containing voltage source loads 
Technology  MSC(DN)/MSR  SVC  SVC PLUS (STATCOM)  Hybrid STATCOM  Synchronous Condenser 

Application  Compensation of predictable load  Fast dynamic compensation and voltage recovery during faults  Fast dynamic compensation and voltage recovery during faults  Fast dynamic compensation and voltage recovery during faults  Provision of shortcircuit power, inertia, dynamic compensation, and voltage recovery during faults 
Switching  Limited switching only  Unlimited switching  Unlimited switching  Unlimited switching  Continuous operation 
V/I characteristic  No response  Good overvoltage performance  Superior under voltage performance  Superior under voltage performance  Good overload capability 
Control range  Adjustable by MSC and MSR ranges  Adjustable by branch ranges  Symmetrical output: Adjustable range  Unsymmetrical output: Adjustable range  Adjustable by generator size 
Redundancy  No inbuilt redundancy  Inbuilt redundancy in thyristor valves  Inbuilt redundancy in power modules  Inbuilt redundancy in power modules and in thyristor valves  Depending on solution 
Harmonics  Susceptible to harmonics  TCR is source of harmonics—AC filters required  Harmonically selfcompensated—no filters required  Harmonically selfcompensated—no filters required  Not susceptible to harmonics 
Response time  2–5 cycles, depending on breaker  2–3 cycles  1.5–2 cycles  1.5–2 cycles  seconds 
Operation and maintenance  Very low, depending on breaker  Low, primarily visual inspection  Very low, primarily visual inspection  Very low, primarily visual inspection  Low, inspection every 3–4 years 
Losses at 0 MVAR output power  0%  0.3% of the rated output power  0.15% of the rated output power  0.15% of the rated output power  ~1% of the rated output power 
Availability  >99%  >99%  >99%  >99%  >98% 
Parameters  Static Capacitors  Capacitor & Reactor Bank  AVC  STATCOM  SVC  TCSC  UPFC 

Reactive power  **  ***  **  ****  ***  **  **** 
Active power  **  **  *  *  **  
Voltage stability  **  **  **  ****  ***  ***  **** 
Voltage control  **  **  **  ****  ***  **  **** 
Flicker control  *  ****  ***  ****  
Harmonic reduction  *  ****  
Power flow control  ***  ****  
Oscillation damping  *  ***  **  ***  **** 
Attributes  Types of Filter  

Passive Filter  Active Filter  Hybrid Filter  DSTATCOM  UPQC  
Reactive power compensation  Poor  Good  Good  Excellent  Excellent 
Harmonic suppression  Fixed  Adjustable  Fixed  Adjustable  Adjustable 
Resonance  May exist  No  No  No  No 
Load compensation  Not provided  Not provided  Not provided  Excellent  Good 
Power rating of power converter    High  small  Highest  small 
Power converter switches    6  4, 6  4, 6, 12  4, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24 
Total cost  Lowest  High  Moderate  High  Highest 
Number  Application  Types of Filter  

Series Active Filter  Shunt Active Filter  Hybrid Filter (Active Series and Passive Shunt)  Hybrid Filter (Active Series and Active Shunt)  
1  Voltage harmonic compensation  *  *  *  
2  Voltage flicker reduction  *  *  *  
3  Removing voltage sags  *  *  *  * 
4  Improving voltage regulation  *  *  *  * 
5  Reactive power compensation  *  *  *  
6  Current harmonic compensation  *  *  *  
7  Neutral current compensation  *  *  
8  Improving load balancing  *  
9  (1 + 4)  *  *  
10  (1 + 2 + 3 + 4)  *  *  
11  (1 + 4 + 5 + 6)  *  *  
12  (1 + 5)  *  *  
13  (5 + 6)  *  *  *  
14  (5 + 6 + 7 + 8)  *  
15  (5 + 6 + 8)  *  *  
16  (6 + 8)  *  
17  (5 + 7 + 8)  * 
Topologies  Electrical Isolation  Efficiency (%)  Advantages  Disadvantages 

Single bus inverter with two paralleled half bridge  No    Minimum component count  Large dc filter components 
Dual bus inverter with two split half bridge single  No    Reliability and flexibility  High component count 
phase 3 wire inverter  Yes    Small passive component  Complex control; for nonisolated circuit 
Dual phase inverter with transformer  Yes    Boosting capability  Higher cost and size 
Threephase PWM inverter  Yes  ~98%  Simple design and control   
High frequency link inverter  Yes  ~96%  Boosting capability  Highly complex; higher cost and size 
Z source inverter  No  ~98%  Boosting capability; save cost, no need for extra dc/dc converter  Complex control; current stress is high 
LLCC resonant inverter  No  ~95%  Lower current ripples; soft switching techniques  Low power density; needs large volume and weight of resonant filter magnetic components 
Series  Converter Topology Features  Diode Rectifier  2LB2B VSC  ZSI  MultiLevel Converter  Matrix Converter  Nine Switch ACAC Converter 

1  Need controlled switches  None  Less  Less  Large  Large  Least 
2  Circuit configuration  Simple  Simple  Simple  Complex  Complex  Simple 
3  Cost  Very low  Moderate  High  Very high  high  Low 
4  DClink capacitor  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  No  Yes 
5  Operational stages  Two  Two  Two  Two  One  One 
6  Waveform quality  Good  Better  Better  Best  Better  Depends 
7  Harmonic distortion  High  Moderate  Low  Least  Low  Depends 
8  Switches losses  None  High  High  Low  Low  High 
9  Conduction losses  Low  Low  Low  Highest  High  Low 
10  Reliability  High  Low  High  Low  High  Low 
11  Bidirectional power flow  No  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes 
12  Control complexity  Easy  Moderate  Moderate  Most complex  More complex  complex 
Split DCLink topology  Conventional Topology  

Advantages  Disadvantages  Advantages  Disadvantages 
Simple design  Unequal voltage sharing in between the split capacitors legs  Handle unbalanced and nonlinear conditions  Need two or many extra switches 
Fewer converter switches  Need an expensive capacitors  Low DCbus voltage  Complicated control strategy 
Simple and fast current tracking control  Unbalanced and nonlinear loads reason a split voltages perturbation  AC output voltage can be greater (about %15) than the output of split DClink topology   
  Need a neutral point balancing technique  Lower ripple in the DClink voltage   
Parameters  Fast Fourier Transform FFT  Discrete Fourier Transform DFT  Recursive Discrete Fourier Transform RDFT  Synchronous Fundamental DQ Frame  Synchronous Individual Harmonic DQ Frame  Instantaneous Power PQ Theory  Generalized Integrators 

Number of Sensors (For a Case of ThreePhase Application)  Three currents  Three currents  Three currents  Three currents, two/three voltages  Three currents, two/three voltages  Three currents, three voltages  Three currents 
Number of Numerical Filters Required by the Harmonic Detection Algorithm  0  0  0  2 × HPFs  2 × LPFs × N *  2 × HPFs  2 × N * 
Additional Tasks Required by the Harmonic Detection Algorithm  Windowing, synchronization  Windowing, synchronization  PLL  PLL  Voltage Preprocessing  .  
Calculation Burden (Excluding the Numerical Filters)      +  +    +   
Numerical Implementation Issues  Calculation Burden,  Calculation Burden,  Instability for low precision  Filtering  Filtering, Tuning  Filtering  Tuning control 
Related Algorithms or Implementations  Similar FFT algorithms  .  Rotating frame  Filter type  Filter type  Filter type; other theoriespqr,pq0  Resonant filters type 
Applications in Single or ThreePhase Systems  Both1ph/3ph  Both1ph/3ph  Both1ph/3ph  Inherently 3ph  Inherently 3ph  Inherently 3ph  Both 1ph/3ph 
Usage of the Voltage Information in the Algorithm  No  No  No  Yes  Yes  Yes  No 
Method’s Performance for Unbalanced and Pre distorted Line Voltages  ++  ++  ++  +  +    ++ 
Method’s Performance for Unbalanced Load Currents  ++  ++  ++  +  ++  ++  + 
Applied for Selective Harmonic Compensation  No  Yes  Yes  No  Yes  No  Yes 
Transient Response Time      +  ++  +  ++  + 
SteadyState Accuracy  +  +  +    +  +   
Available Sizes of STATCOM  

Company  Product Name/Types  Voltage Level  Single Unit Capacity 
ABB  PCS 6000 STATCOM  SeveralTypical (11, 20, 21, 33, 138) KV  (6……..16) MVAR 
HITACHI  STATCOM  (66) KV  (20) MVAR 
DONGFANG HITACHI (CD) ELECTRIC CONTROL EQUIPMENTS CO., LTD.  DHSTATCOM  (6) KV  (600……..46000) KVAR 
CONDENSATOR DOMINIT GMBH  KLARAS, KLARAM, KLARAI  SeveralTypical (400/525/690) V  (5/10, 6/12, 12/25) KVAR 
GAMESA ELECTRIC  STATCOM  (11, 8…..34, 5) KV  (1, 5) MVAR 
STATCOM SOLUTIONS PTY LTD  d105/d315  SeveralTypical (200…..265) V  (5….15) KVA 
ADF POWER TUNING  ADF P700 STATCOM  (6–36) KV  (1……10) MVA 
ADDNEW  STATCOM/SVG  (6, 10, 35) KV  (3) MVAR 
AMSC  DVAR  Up to (46) KV  (±2……..100 s) MVAR 
GAMESA  STATCOMEN  (11.8….34.5) KV (Stepup Transformer)  (1.5) MVAR 
MERUSPOWER  MSTATCOM (Merus M8000)  All voltages via Transformer  (1.3) MVAR 
PONOVO  AccuVar ASVC  (3, 6, 10, 20, 35) KV  (±1…±18) MVAR ASVC100 type (±10…±50) MVAR ASVC200 type 
S AND C ELECTRIC  The Purewave DSTATCOM  (0.48…..35) KV  (±1.23) MVAR/3.3 MVAR 
SIEMENS  SVC Plus  Up to (36) KV (Transformer less)  (±25…..±50) MVAR 
Available sizes of SVC  
ABB  SVC  (69) KV  (+50/−40) MVAR 
GE Power  SVC  (33………380) KV  (0……..300) MVAR 
ADDNEW  FCTCR  (6, 10, 35) KV  (0……..200) MVAR 
ADDNEW  TSC  (6…..10) KV  (0.15……..3) MVAR 
ADDNEW  TCR  (6…..35) KV  (1……..150) MVAR 
PONOVO  SVC (FCTCR)  (6…..66) KV  (0……..400) MVAR 
RXPE  TCR  (6, 10, 27.5, 35, 66) KV  (6……..300) MVAR 
SIEMENS  SVC classic (TSCTCR)  (6……800) KV  (40……..800) MVAR 
Available sizes of APF  
CONDENSATOR DOMINIT GMBH  NQ2501/NQ2502  SeveralTypical (200–480, ±10%) V  (41.5…….41.5) KVA 
ADF POWER TUNING  ADF P10070/480, ADF P100100/480, ADF P100130/480, ADF P10090/690  SeveralTypical (208–480, 480–690) V  (49…….108) KVA 
DELTA ELECTRONICS, INC  APF2000  (200–480) V  (22) KVA 
SCHNEIDER  AccuSine PCS+ (LV active filters)  (380…690) V  (50….250) KVA 
SCHAFFNER  FN3420 ECO sine active  (500–600) V  
SIEMENS  4RF10103PB0  (380–480) V 
METHOD  STRENGTH  WEAKNESS 

PIController 


Hysteresis Control 


DeadBeat Control 


Reference Prediction 


Multirate Sampling 


Phaseangle Correction 


One Cycle Control 


Adaptive Neural Network 


NeuralNetwork Predicting Reference 


Selective Harmonics Compensation 


MasterSlave Control 


Predictive Control 
 
Sliding Mode Control (SMC)  Exhibits reliable performance during transients. Shows an acceptable THD if it is designed well. 

Fuzzy Control Methods 
 Slow control method. 
Repetitive Controller (RC)  These controllers are implemented as harmonic compensators and current controllers. They show robust performance for periodic disturbances and ensure a zero steadystate error at all the harmonic frequencies.  Is not easy to stabilize for all unknown load disturbances and cannot obtain very fast response for fluctuating load. 
© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Share and Cite
Tareen, W.U.K.; Aamir, M.; Mekhilef, S.; Nakaoka, M.; Seyedmahmoudian, M.; Horan, B.; Memon, M.A.; Baig, N.A. Mitigation of Power Quality Issues Due to High Penetration of Renewable Energy Sources in Electric Grid Systems Using ThreePhase APF/STATCOM Technologies: A Review. Energies 2018, 11, 1491. https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061491
Tareen WUK, Aamir M, Mekhilef S, Nakaoka M, Seyedmahmoudian M, Horan B, Memon MA, Baig NA. Mitigation of Power Quality Issues Due to High Penetration of Renewable Energy Sources in Electric Grid Systems Using ThreePhase APF/STATCOM Technologies: A Review. Energies. 2018; 11(6):1491. https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061491
Chicago/Turabian StyleTareen, Wajahat Ullah Khan, Muhammad Aamir, Saad Mekhilef, Mutsuo Nakaoka, Mehdi Seyedmahmoudian, Ben Horan, Mudasir Ahmed Memon, and Nauman Anwar Baig. 2018. "Mitigation of Power Quality Issues Due to High Penetration of Renewable Energy Sources in Electric Grid Systems Using ThreePhase APF/STATCOM Technologies: A Review" Energies 11, no. 6: 1491. https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061491