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Energies 2018, 11(5), 1290; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11051290

Degradation of Low Concentrated Perfluorinated Compounds (PFCs) from Water Samples Using Non-Thermal Atmospheric Plasma (NTAP)

1
Institute of Fluid Mechanics (LSTM), Friedrich-Alexander University (FAU), 91058 Erlangen, Germany
2
Erlangen Graduate School in Advanced Optical Technologies (SAOT), 91054 Erlangen, Germany
3
R&H Umwelt GmbH, 90471 Nuremberg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 4 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Fields in Energy & Process Engineering)
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Abstract

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are manmade chemicals, containing the covalent C-F bond, which is among the strongest chemical bonds known to organic chemistry. Abundant use of these chemicals contaminates air, water, and soil around the world. Despite recent initiatives and legal regulations set to reduce their omnipresence, conventional water purification processes are either inefficient or very expensive, especially for low PFC contamination levels. This research is focused on the non-thermal atmospheric plasma (NTAP) decomposition of very low concentrations (<1 µg/L) of PFCs (especially perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)), present in the wastewater produced during the process of PFCs removal from contaminated soil. The efficiency of the decomposition process was investigated for air, oxygen, and nitrogen plasma, with exposure times of 1–10 min and different plasma nozzle- and reactor sizes. Experiments demonstrated that the NTAP treatment is an efficient alternative method for degradation of more than 50% of the initial PFC concentration in the water samples, in less than 200 s. The final concentration of PFC showed strong dependency on the tested parameters. The treatment effect showed to be strongly non-linear with time, followed by the reduction of the pH-value of the treated sample, which might present a limiting factor for further PFC decomposition. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-thermal atmospheric plasma; Perfluorinated compound (PFC) removal; wastewater treatment non-thermal atmospheric plasma; Perfluorinated compound (PFC) removal; wastewater treatment
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Jovicic, V.; Khan, M.J.; Zbogar-Rasic, A.; Fedorova, N.; Poser, A.; Swoboda, P.; Delgado, A. Degradation of Low Concentrated Perfluorinated Compounds (PFCs) from Water Samples Using Non-Thermal Atmospheric Plasma (NTAP). Energies 2018, 11, 1290.

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