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Energies 2018, 11(12), 3362; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11123362

The Role of Charging Infrastructure in Electric Vehicle Implementation within Smart Grids

1
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
2
CanmetENERGY Research Centre, Ottawa, ON K1A 1M1, Canada
3
Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON N2L 3C5, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 November 2018 / Revised: 20 November 2018 / Accepted: 27 November 2018 / Published: 1 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Smart Grid)
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Abstract

In the integration of electric vehicle (EV) fleets into the smart grid context, charging infrastructure serves as the interlinkage between EV fleets and the power grid and, as such, affects the impacts of EV operation on the smart grid. In this study, the impacts of charging infrastructure on the effectiveness of different EV operational modes were simulated using a multi-component modelling approach, which accounts for both stochastic EV fleet charging behaviors as well as optimal energy vector dispatch operation. Moreover, a campus microgrid case study was presented to demonstrate the various design factors and impacts of charging infrastructure implementation affecting EV fleet adoption and operation. Based on results from the study, it was shown that charging infrastructure should be adopted in excess of the minimum required to satisfy EV charging for driving needs. In addressing uncontrolled charging behaviors, additional charging infrastructure improves EV owner convenience and reduces queuing duration. Meanwhile, controlled charging strategies benefit from increased resilience against uncertain charging behavior and operate more optimally in systems subject to time-of-use (TOU) electricity pricing. Lastly, it was demonstrated that successful vehicle-to-grid (V2G) implementation requires charging infrastructure to emulate the availability and fast response characteristics of stationary energy storage systems, which translates to excess charging port availability, long EV plug-in durations, and bi-directional power flow capabilities well beyond the level 2 charging standard. View Full-Text
Keywords: electric vehicle; smart grid; vehicle-to-grid; controlled charging; optimization electric vehicle; smart grid; vehicle-to-grid; controlled charging; optimization
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kong, Q.; Fowler, M.; Entchev, E.; Ribberink, H.; McCallum, R. The Role of Charging Infrastructure in Electric Vehicle Implementation within Smart Grids. Energies 2018, 11, 3362.

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