Next Article in Journal
Investigation of an Innovative Cascade Cycle Combining a Trilateral Cycle and an Organic Rankine Cycle (TLC-ORC) for Industry or Transport Application
Previous Article in Journal
Analysis and Control of Electrolytic Capacitor-Less LED Driver Based on Harmonic Injection Technique
Previous Article in Special Issue
Mathematical Modeling of Non-Premixed Laminar Flow Flames Fed with Biofuel in Counter-Flow Arrangement Considering Porosity and Thermophoresis Effects: An Asymptotic Approach
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Energies 2018, 11(11), 3031;

Simultaneous Extraction and Emulsification of Food Waste Liquefaction Bio-Oil

Institute of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Mining and Geology, VŠB—Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba, Czech Republic
Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 October 2018 / Revised: 28 October 2018 / Accepted: 31 October 2018 / Published: 5 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofuel and Bioenergy Technology)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3343 KB, uploaded 5 November 2018]   |  


Biomass-derived bio-oil is a sustainable and renewable energy resource, and liquefaction is a potential conversion way to produce bio-oil. Emulsification is a physical upgrading technology, which blends immiscible liquids into a homogeneous emulsion through the addition of an emulsifier. Liquefaction bio-oil from food waste is characterized by its high pour point when compared to diesel fuel. In order to partially replace diesel fuel by liquefaction bio-oil, this study aimed to develop a method to simultaneously extract and emulsify the bio-oil using a commercial surfactant (Atlox 4914, CRODA, Snaith, UK). The solubility and stability of the emulsions at various operating conditions such as the bio-oil-to-emulsifier ratio (B/E ratio), storage temperature and duration, and co-surfactant (methanol) addition were analyzed. The results demonstrate that higher amounts of bio-oil (7 g) and emulsifier (7 g) at a B/E ratio = 1 in an emulsion have a higher solubility (66.48 wt %). When the B/E ratio was decreased from 1 to 0.556, the bio-oil solubility was enhanced by 45.79%, even though the storage duration was up to 7 days. Compared to the emulsion stored at room temperature (25 °C), its storage at 100 °C presented a higher solubility, especially at higher B/E ratios. Moreover, when methanol was added as a co-surfactant during emulsification at higher B/E ratios (0.714 to 1), it rendered better solubility (58.83–70.96 wt %). Overall, the emulsified oil showed greater stability after the extraction-emulsification process. View Full-Text
Keywords: emulsification; liquefaction; bio-oils; co-surfactant; surfactant; diesel emulsification; liquefaction; bio-oils; co-surfactant; surfactant; diesel

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Längauer, D.; Lin, Y.-Y.; Chen, W.-H.; Wang, C.-W.; Šafář, M.; Čablík, V. Simultaneous Extraction and Emulsification of Food Waste Liquefaction Bio-Oil. Energies 2018, 11, 3031.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top