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Energies 2018, 11(11), 3031; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11113031

Simultaneous Extraction and Emulsification of Food Waste Liquefaction Bio-Oil

1
Institute of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Mining and Geology, VŠB—Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba, Czech Republic
2
Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
3
Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 October 2018 / Revised: 28 October 2018 / Accepted: 31 October 2018 / Published: 5 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofuel and Bioenergy Technology)
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Abstract

Biomass-derived bio-oil is a sustainable and renewable energy resource, and liquefaction is a potential conversion way to produce bio-oil. Emulsification is a physical upgrading technology, which blends immiscible liquids into a homogeneous emulsion through the addition of an emulsifier. Liquefaction bio-oil from food waste is characterized by its high pour point when compared to diesel fuel. In order to partially replace diesel fuel by liquefaction bio-oil, this study aimed to develop a method to simultaneously extract and emulsify the bio-oil using a commercial surfactant (Atlox 4914, CRODA, Snaith, UK). The solubility and stability of the emulsions at various operating conditions such as the bio-oil-to-emulsifier ratio (B/E ratio), storage temperature and duration, and co-surfactant (methanol) addition were analyzed. The results demonstrate that higher amounts of bio-oil (7 g) and emulsifier (7 g) at a B/E ratio = 1 in an emulsion have a higher solubility (66.48 wt %). When the B/E ratio was decreased from 1 to 0.556, the bio-oil solubility was enhanced by 45.79%, even though the storage duration was up to 7 days. Compared to the emulsion stored at room temperature (25 °C), its storage at 100 °C presented a higher solubility, especially at higher B/E ratios. Moreover, when methanol was added as a co-surfactant during emulsification at higher B/E ratios (0.714 to 1), it rendered better solubility (58.83–70.96 wt %). Overall, the emulsified oil showed greater stability after the extraction-emulsification process. View Full-Text
Keywords: emulsification; liquefaction; bio-oils; co-surfactant; surfactant; diesel emulsification; liquefaction; bio-oils; co-surfactant; surfactant; diesel
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Längauer, D.; Lin, Y.-Y.; Chen, W.-H.; Wang, C.-W.; Šafář, M.; Čablík, V. Simultaneous Extraction and Emulsification of Food Waste Liquefaction Bio-Oil. Energies 2018, 11, 3031.

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