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Energies 2018, 11(11), 3001; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11113001

Exploring Energy Pathways for the Low-Carbon Transformation in India—A Model-Based Analysis

1
TU Berlin, Workgroup for Infrastructure and Policy, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin, Germany
2
DIW Berlin, Energy, Transport, and Environment, Mohrenstraße 58, 10117 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 September 2018 / Revised: 23 October 2018 / Accepted: 25 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 100% Renewable Energy Transition: Pathways and Implementation)
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Abstract

With an increasing expected energy demand and current dominance of coal electrification, India plays a major role in global carbon policies and the future low-carbon transformation. This paper explores three energy pathways for India until 2050 by applying the linear, cost-minimizing, global energy system model (GENeSYS-MOD). The benchmark scenario “limited emissions only” (LEO) is based on ambitious targets set out by the Paris Agreement. A more conservative “business as usual” (BAU) scenario is sketched out along the lines of the New Policies scenario from the International Energy Agency (IEA). On the more ambitious side, we explore the potential implications of supplying the Indian economy entirely with renewable energies with the “100% renewable energy sources” (100% RES) scenario. Overall, our results suggest that a transformation process towards a low-carbon energy system in the power, heat, and transportation sectors until 2050 is technically feasible. Solar power is likely to establish itself as the key energy source by 2050 in all scenarios, given the model’s underlying emission limits and technical parameters. The paper concludes with an analysis of potential social, economic and political barriers to be overcome for the needed Indian low-carbon transformation. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy system modeling; decarbonization; global energy system model (GENeSYS-MOD); renewables; India; energy transformation; energy transition; sector coupling energy system modeling; decarbonization; global energy system model (GENeSYS-MOD); renewables; India; energy transformation; energy transition; sector coupling
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Lawrenz, L.; Xiong, B.; Lorenz, L.; Krumm, A.; Hosenfeld, H.; Burandt, T.; Löffler, K.; Oei, P.-Y.; Von Hirschhausen, C. Exploring Energy Pathways for the Low-Carbon Transformation in India—A Model-Based Analysis. Energies 2018, 11, 3001.

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