Next Article in Journal
Improving Transient Response of Power Converter in a Stand-Alone Microgrid Using Virtual Synchronous Generator
Previous Article in Journal
Distributed Variable Droop Curve Control Strategies in Smart Microgrid
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Energies 2018, 11(1), 22;

An MILP Method for Design of Distributed Energy Resource System Considering Stochastic Energy Supply and Demand

Beijing Key Laboratory of Urban oil and Gas Distribution Technology, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Fuxue Road No. 18, Changping District, Beijing 102249, China
Sino-Pipeline International Company Limited, Dongzhimen North Street No. 9, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100010, China
Center for Spatial Information Science, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi 277-8568, Chiba, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 November 2017 / Revised: 1 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
Full-Text   |   PDF [2999 KB, uploaded 24 December 2017]   |  


A distributed energy resource (DER) system, which can be defined as a medium or small energy conversion and utilization system with various functions for meeting multiple targets, is directly oriented towards users and achieves on-site production and energy supply according to users’ demands. Optimization research on system construction has recently become an important issue. In this paper, simple stochastic mathematical equations were used to interpret the optimal design problem of a DER system, and based on this, a novel method for solving the optimization problem, which has multi-dimensional stochastic uncertainties (involving the price of input-energy and energy supply and demand), was put forward. A mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model was established for the optimal design of the DER system by combining the ideas of mean value and variance, aiming to minimize the total costs, including facility costs, energy purchase costs, and loss caused by energy supply shortage, and considering the energy balance and facility performance constraints. In the end, a DER system design for an office building district in Xuzhou, China, was taken as an example to verify the model. The influences of uncertainty on the selection of system facilities and the economic evaluation were analyzed. The result indicated that uncertainty of energy demand played a significant role in optimal design, whereas energy price played a negligible role. With respect to economy, if uncertainties are not considered in system design, it will result in a short supply, and therefore the total cost will increase considerably. The calculation convergence was compared with previous work. The implementation results showed the practicality and efficiency of the proposed method. View Full-Text
Keywords: distributed energy resource system; energy supply and demand; stochastic; MILP distributed energy resource system; energy supply and demand; stochastic; MILP

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Duan, Z.; Yan, Y.; Yan, X.; Liao, Q.; Zhang, W.; Liang, Y.; Xia, T. An MILP Method for Design of Distributed Energy Resource System Considering Stochastic Energy Supply and Demand. Energies 2018, 11, 22.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top