The (R)evolution of China: Offshore Wind Diffusion
2. Research Objectives, Key Academic Terms, and Case Study Introduction
2.1. Research Objectives
- Are the 12th Five Year Plan offshore wind targets of 5 GW and 30 GW of offshore wind power in operation realistically implementable by the prescribed plan deadlines of 2015 and 2020 respectively?
- With the onshore (r)evolution of wind energy in China, why has the evolution of offshore wind been seemingly a lot slower?
- What role, if any, does logistics, as defined by Poulsen and Hasager , play in this slower offshore wind diffusion in China?
2.2. Industry Maturity
- mature, and ultimately
- First, the ILC theory stream deals with several attributes and groupings of characteristics of the industry or firms therein which can be observed to change over time as the industry evolves through the life cycle phases. Findings from literature have been grouped in several literature reviews [20,21,24] with the general objective that observations may then determine where in the ILC trajectory an industry is. As an example, Jensen and Thoms  define five groupings of characteristics with a total of 17 different sub-attributes that evolve and change over the life cycle of an industry based on a literature review that also includes a detailed review of the two prior literature reviews [20,24].
- Second, the ILC theory stream is also concerned with how one ILC phase ends to give way to the next phase in order for firms to understand when for example the growth phase ends and the maturity phase commences for example based on the emergence of a dominant design . General opinions on the behaviour of different industries have been formed on this topic by reviewing literature  with the result that certain industry growth rates imply the shift from e.g., the entrepreneurial regime/embryonic ILC phase to the growth ILC phase. As the ILC theory stream is in itself still in the process of maturing [20,24], terminology pertaining to the different ILC phases is somewhat ambiguous and the timing of some critical ILC events like ‘the shake-out’ is sometimes noted to be taking place in different ILC phases .
- Third, ILC literature is concerned with how firms can be successful in an industry and how an industry survives or declines and ultimately dies out. Several events in the ILC phases are of interest such as entry timing of firms/first mover advantage, survival of the shake-out, and the emergence of a dominant design . In addition, other factors such as the technological trajectory, prior experience, and prior industry affiliation  are also understood to be of importance. From the ILC literature it is clear that not all events happen across all industries. For example, a shake-out may not occur because of situations, such as spin-offs or new niches emerging  or the formation of sub-markets . Similarly, the industry may stay in the mature ILC phase and never enter the decline phase by virtue of events such as dematurity, renewal, and re-cycles which counter-act the standard ILC trajectory pattern [21,22].
2.3. Chinese State-Owned Enterprises
2.4. Mergers and Acqusitions
- planning and finding,
- valuation and pricing,
- financing and refinancing,
- structuring M&A/buyout transactions,
- the due diligence inquiry,
- pension, labour, and compensation concerns,
- negotiation of the letter of intent and the acquisition agreement,
- deal closing, and
2.5. China Offshore Wind Case Study Introduction
3.1. Primary Empirical Data Collection Efforts in China
3.2. Our Asian Case Study Work outside China
- Due to the very costly nature of travels to and within Japan, our efforts to understand the Japan market for offshore wind have been rendered remotely and our analysis and results have as of now not been widely disseminated.
- Our efforts to understand the market potential of offshore wind in South Korea as well as the shipping and logistics scene did not materialize to the extent conceived at one point within the research project and the actual analysis results pertaining to South Korea have been described separately [3,11].
- A brief visit to Taiwan in 2015 (see Table 2) has been coupled with remote efforts to understand the market there as well as detailed dialogue by phone and email with key Taiwanese partners engaged in offshore wind. In general, Taiwan is very open to foreign direct investment and knowledge sharing. Efforts have been rendered within academia to assist the Taiwanese government to map out the potential for offshore wind electricity generation in Taiwan and to analyze the extreme wind speeds experienced on the West Coast of Taiwan . Also, academia has provided useful answers regarding alternative types of foundations for deeper waters such as modified jacket foundations suitable for local conditions and seabed structures in Taiwan . In addition, simulations including earthquake impact on the jacket foundation piling structure have been performed, duly considering the special soil conditions . The windy South China Sea has also been studied from the other coast line across the Strait, in China. Chinese scholars have analyzed the special weather conditions with focus on the damage inflicted to offshore wind turbines by typhoons which has been coupled with thoughts on potential implications on WTG design efforts . In addition, implications for wind and waves respectively as seen from a floating offshore wind turbine perspective have been analyzed [68,69].
- Somewhat similar to how the offshore wind market in Japan has been researched remotely, the India market has been reviewed remotely in a similar manner as part of this research. As part of wrapping up a separate project on competition and collaboration between Europe and Asia, several final draft versions of a very informative and useful working paper (mimeo) on the wind industry in India were circulated [70,71]. The status of the offshore wind industry in India along with policy considerations for the Indian government to speed up diffusion has furthermore been described very well by Govindan and Shankar . In addition, a total of four interviews about the Indian market have been performed in Asia as well as in Denmark as an extended part of this research.
3.3. The Journey across Many Bridges to Reach Our Embedded Case Study Panacea
- Building bridges to form a platform of relations: The first three of the five primary empirical data collection trips to China (the trip which took place during 2013 and the two trips in 2014—see Table 1) were utilized in order to build ‘bridges’ into the Chinese offshore wind energy industry including the opportunity to perform participant observation site visits to key locations, firms, and events. The lens applied was shipping and logistics as the ‘access point’ enabling the discussions. A total of 47 semi-structured interviews and 6 participant observation site visits  made up the empirical data collection foundation assembled during these initial trips (see Table 3). The interview part of the encounters made use of interview protocols with open-ended keywords [60,63] to enable a smooth flow of conversation as the interview settings were often informal and always semi-structured and iterative in nature . This work was rendered in order to be able to understand the shipping and logistics aspects of Chinese offshore wind in more detail.
- Understanding China as seen by non-Chinese constituencies: The two-month stay in China of the associate researcher during the first half of 2014 was designed mainly in order to understand the Chinese wind market as seen through the lens of non-Chinese firms and non-Chinese people in China. Again, focus going in was put on shipping and logistics as the ‘access point’ (see Table 5 for details).The interviews of the associate researcher were designed as iterative and semi-structured interviews which concurrently developed as more empirical data was amassed and analyzed . This part of the overall research design was made in such a way that the 41 semi-structured interviews performed would contribute to a primarily non-Chinese understanding of key developments that occurred in the past , mainly in terms of providing a contextual understanding of the revolutionary development of the onshore wind market in China as well as a to serve as a point of departure on the future of the more steadily progressing evolution of offshore wind in China.
- Embedded case study: The remaining two of the five primary empirical data collection trips to China were conducted during July and October, 2015 in parallel with a European case study . The initial relationship platform created in China had resulted in several full case studies now being available. The two most prominent case studies included that of a major SASAC-controlled CSOE shipping firm and that of a leading private Chinese WTG OEM. The leading Chinese WTG OEM case study opportunity was chosen as the embedded case study [60,61] as it was believed to hold the promise and potential to bring unparalleled insight into the layering of buyer-supplier relations  of offshore wind in China by the OEM providing case access to their customers as well as suppliers . This embedded case study was executed during the last two primary empirical data collection visits to China (see Table 2, Table 3 and Table 4) and comprised a total of 15 structured interviews using a bi-lingual interview guide as well as a total of 34 participant observation site visits [3,62,63].
4. Contextual Analysis
4.1. Contextual Study on Legislative Framework and Policy Level Background
- Particularly the government of Denmark assisted the Chinese government to set up the administrative infrastructure for renewable energy in particular and wind energy in general. As such, the China National Energy Administration of China is very much modeled after the Danish Energy Administration [79,80].
- As the initial targets for wind energy diffusion were set by the Chinese government essentially creating a 4-phased evolutionary path of the onshore wind industry much akin to the generic ILC taxonomy , three wind energy deployment ‘accelerators’ were put in place at a macro/policy level:
- promoting the market competitiveness at industry level,
- improving the internationalization capabilities of firms,
- creating a support system at the institutional level, and
- ensure a domestic foundation is in existence for the strategic emerging industries in the form of a strong Chinese domestic home market.
4.2. Policy Drivers Correlated to Specific Firm Behaviour in the Chinese Wind Energy Industry
- In terms of M&A activities of Chinese firms, academic research analyzing 512 outward M&A deals by Chinese firms across 36 industries showed that developing Chinese firms are more likely to acquire overseas firms in industries with a high technology intensity and where a technology gap exists favouring overseas firms . Within the wind industry, the most prominent recent examples with a direct bearing on offshore wind are those of SASAC overseen CSOE developers/operators China General Nuclear (CGN), CTG, and State Development and Investment Corporation (SDIC). Onshore wind antecedents to these recent offshore wind M&A cases include the internationalization efforts of Goldwind, HydroChina, United Power/Longyuan, Beijing Construction Engineering Group, and the significant investment made by Sinovel into the JV with Ireland-based global wind farm developer Mainstream . Some academic studies have been made to understand the decision process within Chinese firms when making such outward cross-border M&A transactions across several emerging economies including China [85,86] and specifically for the Chinese wind energy industry . Conversely, the rationale of European target firms selling to Chinese firms was analyzed academically across five firms sold to Chinese firms in a German setting .
- CTG is the operator of the Three Gorges Dam in China and CTG has set aggressive renewable energy targets for 2020. By the end of 2011, CTG entered into a strategic partnership pertaining to renewable energy [81,82] with EdP. In the strategic partnership, CTG was first to take over a 21.35% share in EdP for EUR 2.7 billion . The stake in EdP was acquired by CTG from the Portuguese government as part of a privatization process of EdP. Subsequently, CTG was to acquire existing fully operational and/or ready-to-build/projected renewable energy projects for EUR 2 billion . Last but not least, CTG was to ensure that a 20-year credit facility of EUR 2 billion be orchestrated by the China government backed lender, China Development Bank . The different parts of the strategic partnership have since been executed including CTG investments in EdP renewable energy assets in Brazil hydro power  as well as EdP shares in power generation and distribution assets in former Portugese colony in Asia, Macau . Within the offshore wind segment, an investment by CTG via an EdP subsidiary of 30% of the shares in the ready-to-build Scottish 1+ GW OWF, Moray . A similar investment in a ready-to-build OWF project in France has been jointly announced by EdP and CTG for early 2017 . Separate to the EdP deals, CTG has acquired 80% of already operational 288 MW German OWF MeerWind Süd/Ost from US private equity firm Blackstone [96,97].
- SDIC acquired the UK-based offshore wind business of Spain’s Repsol  for EUR 238 million . This acquisition gave SDIC 100% control of the 784 MW Inch Cape OWF project and a 25% stake in the 588 MW Beatrice OWF project. The Beatrice OWF project achieved financial close in 2016  and the partners of SDIC in Beatrice are SSE (40%) and Copenhagen Infrastructure Partners with 35% .
- Other and less prominent and technology infusion  driven M&A examples include the Goldwind acquisition of Vensys in Germany (for the full Goldwind internationalization case study up to 2013, see Zhang et al. ), the XEMC acquisition of Dutch OEM Darwind , the Titan acquisition of a tower factory in Denmark from Vestas, and the CASC Direct Chinese market JV with Dutch EWT.
- Establishing R+D centers overseas is commonly done in an organic manner as exemplified by Envision, Ming Yang, and most recently Goldwind  who have all set up R+D offices in Denmark.
- Several Chinese OEMs make use of technology transfer partnerships and as an example, this includes Ming Yang, Shanghai Electric, and Zhejiang Windey , who have all formed partnerships with Germany-based Aerodyn as well as Dongfang Electric and Sinovel who each respectively formed a partnership with American Superconductors.
- Overseas investments outside China to build organic manufacturing plants to perform final assembly of partly Chinese-constructed wind component in Europe have also been done. Most prominently this was announced and set-up by the Jiangsu Hantong shipyard group as they set up their EUR 50-million investment in Jade Werke in Wilhelmshafen, Germany  to construct/perform final assembly of steel foundations for OWFs . However, due to the fluctuating offshore wind plans of the German government, the plans were not finalized and the manufacturing facility not finalized .
4.3. Review of the Revolutionary Diffusion of Onshore Wind in China
- US-based GE Energy (GE) first entered the Chinese wind market with a wholly owned foreign enterprise (WOFE) strategy including a fully owned wind turbine manufacturing plant in Shenyang. In 2010, GE and long-term GE China gas turbine partner Harbin Electric announced the formation of two wind turbine OEM JVs in China where Harbin would take over 49% of the GE onshore plant in Shenyang and GE would take over 49% of a new Harbin offshore plant in Zhenjiang in the Jiangsu province of China. The JVs were ended by mid 2013  with GE citing “…fundamental differences in commercial priorities and business strategy…” as the reason for the JV dissolutions . Pursuing the Chinese wind market separately hereinafter, GE took back over 100% of their Shenyang plant and Harbin gained 100% control over the Zhenjiang plant.
- Before the merger of Siemens Wind Power and Gamesa, now Spain-based Siemens Gamesa Renewable Energy (SGRE) first had the Siemens Wind Power business enter the Chinese wind market with a WOFE strategy including a brownfield factory set-up the Nanhui (formerly Lingang) district of the Eastern part of Shanghai. Near to other fossil fuel JV manufacturing sites with longstanding Siemens Group JV partner in China, Shanghai Electric [111,112], the first SGRE WOFE blade manufacturing site was opened in 2010 . However, already in 2011, two JVs for wind energy in China were entered into with Shanghai Electric [114,115,116] which came into effect in 2012 [117,118]. Towards the end of 2014, Shanghai Electric publicly stated at the China Wind Power conference in Beijing that the “…complex structure of the joint ventures resulted in great operating difficulties, high administrative costs and low efficiency…”  and this was also conveyed by Shanghai Electric in public elsewhere . During 2015, SGRE (then Siemens Wind Power) pulled out of the domestic Chinese wind energy market and licensed its’ core WTG technology to Shanghai Electric . SGRE maintained an export focused WOFE manufacturing footprint e.g., for blades in Nanhui.
“Vestas was one of our biggest customers in Europe and they asked us to join them and enter the Chinese market when they [Vestas] did. At that time, local Chinese regulations apparently stipulated that a minimum of 70% nationally produced content form part of the wind turbines produced by foreign firms with a WOFE set-up in China”.
5. Empirical Data Collection Analysis
5.1. Secondary Data Collection Efforts: Turbine Manufacturer Level
- Warranty period. From the interviewees, it was gathered that WTGs were normally sold by OEMs with a 2-year warranty period and that developers would release the last 10–15% of the WTG payment only after warranty period. In other cases, non-Chinese OEMs had given up to 10 years of warranty in China.
- Export focus. Several Chinese OEMs wanted to export WTGs to other parts of the world. Several strategies were quoted in the interviews. One interviewee stated that “…one OEM had developed a strategy where they plan to start with the outer areas of Europe like Turkey. Here, less certification requirements exist and they would then work their way in to the core European markets…”. An account of Chinese wind turbine exports has also been performed academically .
5.2. Secondary Data Collection Efforts: Sub-Supplier Level
- Patents/IPR. Protecting patents and intellectual property rights was listed as a key concern by many non-Chinese interviewees and has also been dealt with extensively by academia . One detailed academic analysis comprising 17 WTG OEM firms with a more elaborate perusal of 6 sample firms concluded that based on their first-mover advantages from the European wind market, several European firms seemed to possess the dominant design but later Chinese market entrants caught up to the European firms in terms of number of patents filed on an annual basis  which could indicate the emergence of a separate dominant design  in the Chinese submarket . One European sub-supplier explained to the associate researcher that “…during the first years, we did business with all top ten Chinese OEMs. However, they bought in very low quantities from us. Afterwards, we only continued to do some substantial business with one OEM, later two…” and this has been depicted graphically as an evolution of firms’ networks in Zhou et al. .
- Payment terms. Many non-Chinese interviewees stated that cash-flow was challenging in the Chinese market. One sub-supplier stated that “…payment terms from developers and OEMs could often be 6-12-18 months and this makes it challenging to run the business…”. Within academia, a comprehensive recent literature review covering supply chain integration  identified only one paper  that deals with integration of the financial supply chain into the supply chains that deal with the movement of goods as well as information/documentation.
- ‘Us’ and ‘Them’. From our interviews, it was clear that the China-based management of the Chinese subsidiaries of non-Chinese firms often felt that they were very often “…left to be very alone…” with the complex Chinese market and that their overall situation was “…not well understood…” by their corporate colleagues back at the corporate offices in e.g., Europe.
5.3. Primary Data Collection Efforts: Macro Level China Offshore Wind Industry Gap Analysis
5.4. Primary Data Collection Efforts: Developer/Operator Level China Offshore Wind Industry Gap Analysis
- It was a case of the relationship having been established,
- gaining access to European knowledge/relations, as well as
- the ability to bring a new and academically driven dimension into their already strong and continuously improving client/supplier relations.
- European showcase construction of OWFs in China. At government level and also at SOE level, a wish was put forward for a European OWF developer to construct and operate an OWF in China based on European standards but subjected to Chinese conditions.
- Full OWF life-cycle cost modeling capabilities. At the project approval stage, critical capabilities around cost modeling for the entire life-cycle of an OWF were sought also including the O&M and de-commissioning life-cycle phases.
- Full OWF life-cycle project planning capabilities. From a project planning perspective, tools and IT systems were mentioned as critical gaps. One developer expressed that “…we will construct the offshore wind farm in less than 18 months which matches the standards set in Europe…” but when asked how long the project had been in planning phases, the answer was eight years.
- Full OWF risk management and insurance capabilities as well as experience. Risk management was mentioned as a critical factor for OWFs as these projects are not yet well understood. Insurance as an option to cover risks was discussed and it could be particularly relevant for private operators and SOEs alike. However, not much risk management and insurance underwriting experience exists for OWFs in China yet.
- EPCi firms willing to bring experience from Europe to China. The ability to buy a turn-key and fully engineered, procured, constructed, and installed OWF is something some of the SOE developers aspire to become able to sell as an export package in the future. However, to gain such experience in China, a wish was expressed to have overseas EPCi firms enter China with this experience from the offshore wind sector. One Chinese EPCi representative expressed that in driving past an offshore WTG with the Group CEO, the head of their, at that time, troubled offshore wind division had received a comment from the CEO as follows:“We build bridges, cranes, and ships. How can a small wind turbine generator like that cause us this amount of challenges?”
- BOP supply chain infrastructure and experience. The BOP supply chain was not very built out in China. As an example, it was not until 2015 that the first offshore substations (OSS’s) were needed and subsequently imported into China for installation. According to ABB , they delivered the first OSS to CTG’s Xiangshui Offshore Wind Farm. At the same time, also the Huaneng/Huadian JV OWF Rudong Baxianjiao Offshore Wind Farm  as well as CGN  have been eager to take credit for OSS’s and foundations that were installed as China-first and Asia-first milestones respectively. Similarly, export cables and array cables represent challenges in the China BOP supply chain.
- Decommissioning experience and calculation methods. The decommissioning life-cycle phase was now being considered according to our research. One developer explained that they are now considering how to do this in an onshore setting and that “…offshore decommissioning is much more complex. We need to consider this from the beginning as our projects are planned”.
5.5. Primary Data Collection Efforts: Turbine Manufactgurer Level China Offshore Wind Industry Gap Analysis
- Partnerships with European firms to customize European experience to the unique Chinese conditions. In general, Chinese constituencies interviewed expressed that they did not see a direct application of European knowledge, technology, or assets into the Chinese market: A certain degree of customization to China would be necessary and this would be one of the tasks for which a Chinese partner of a collaboration constellation would be ideally suited. Chinese interviewees expressed concern about overseas solutions being too costly, inefficient, and not sufficiently focused on the Chinese SOE social responsibility to also generate jobs locally in the provinces where the OWFs are constructed.
- O&M concepts, experiences, and factual operational data. Significant challenges were faced by operators of onshore wind farms and this was shared rather openly with photos and commentary during public conferences . Based on these challenges onshore , knowledge of O&M from a conceptual design as well as an actual operations perspective was actively sought. Offshore wind O&M experience coupled with actual operational data were key dimensions sought by developers as well as OEMs alike.
- Offshore native WTG technology able to withstand the harsh offshore environment. Especially in the South, harsh weather including typhoons had long had a severe impact on onshore WTGs. Relevant experience particularly from the North Sea was sought in terms of typhoon impact prevention. Similarly, for icy conditions, especially experience from the Baltic Sea Region was sought.
- Offshore wind turbine foundations. Especially in the porous inter-tidal OWF development zones for the Yellow River, Yangtze River, and Pearl River, demands for different offshore wind foundations have been very apparent. Especially the Longyuan Rudong Intertidal Trial Offshore Wind Farm features more than 100 WTGs made by 10+ OEMs including SGRE, Sinovel, Goldwind, CSIC Haizhuang, Dongfang Electric, Envision, United Power, Ming Yang, SANY, SEwind, Wuxi Baonan, and XEMC. As observed during our visits to the OWF in 2015, each offshore wind OEM has tested several WTG designs and in some cases also several foundation designs. OWF operator Longyuan has patented a solution to eliminate the transition piece between the foundation and WTG [129,130].
- Shipping and logistics knowledge, processes, and experience across all life-cycle phases. This part was particularly expanded upon due to this forming the crux of our interview protocol and because shipping and logistics topics were presented in advance of the interviews as our key reason for wanting to take up time of the interviewees. In the development & consent OWF life-cycle phase , studies of road conditions and studies of seabed conditions were cited as critical areas where exchange of information with overseas counterparts could be of use. In addition, studies of the environment and animal protection opportunities were also cited as key development and consent opportunities for collaboration. In general, vessels based on European operations experiences were sought. However, it was highlighted that such vessels would need to be customized for the unique Chinese OWF set-ups with focus on inter-tidal, river delta, near shore, and 10-10-10 definition (the ‘double-ten’ or ’10-10-10’ standard) of the China State Oceanic Administration  across the different OWF life-cycle phases . Specific vessel knowledge including piling hammer vessels, cable laying vessels, and WTIVs (installation and commissioning life-cycle phase  of an OWF) and crew transfer vessels (O&M life-cycle phase) was commonly requested along with specific capabilities and skills such as jacking, dynamic positioning, and cranage. Especially in terms of the quite expensive WTIVs, overseas investments to bring both experience and assets to China were sought: In terms of WTIVs, a gap existed in terms of capacity necessary for China to complete the construction of the 44 OWF projects  within the new June, 2014 implemented central government FIT stipulations .
- First, to understand ‘local’ issues in a country with almost 1.4 billion inhabitants is also no small task. To some extent, offshore wind in China can be seen as the three distinctively different regional areas as in the North, Central, and Southern parts of the East Coast of China where particularly the wind speeds differ (similar to the Mediterranean, Atlantic, North Sea, and Baltic Sea conditions of Europe). Within each offshore wind regional area, several provinces exist like Fujian and Guangdong in the South or Shanghai and Jiangsu in the Central offshore wind regions. Within each province, major cities, counties, and ports exist and this geographical and political structure of province/city/county/port may to some extent be compared to a country set-up in Europe or the structures of individual states in the US.
- Second, a barrier of understanding also existed in the form of the language (written and spoken) where especially the more senior generation Chinese often chose to speak and write English only through interpreters which could indicate a power stance .
- Third, the idea of getting quoted or cited in academic work was not always very culturally desired for the interviewees as the risk was perceived to be great in terms of saying something which may be quoted wrongly and/or could be interpreted as criticism of the firm, the country, and/or colleagues.
- Fourth, respect of Chinese ways of interacting and the construct of the concurrently developing personal relations deserves mention.
- Finally, cultural topics such as general Chinese protocol and etiquette may seem insignificant but should not be omitted.
Conflicts of Interest
|BOP||Balance of plant|
|CAGR||Compound annual growth rate|
|CCCC||China Communications Construction Company|
|CGN||Chinese utility firm China General Nuclear|
|COSCO||China Ocean Shipping Company|
|CSOE||Central state-owned enterprise overseen by the State|
|CTG||Chinese utility firm China Three Gorges|
|EdP||Energias de Portugal|
|EPCi||Engineering, procurement, construction, and installation|
|ILC||Industry life cycle|
|IPO||Initial public offering|
|IPR||Intellectual property rights|
|LSOE||Local state-owned enterprise in China owned by the provincial and/or local municipality government|
|M&A||Mergers & acquisitions|
|O&M||Operations and maintenance|
|OEM||Original equipment manufacturer|
|OWF||Offshore wind farm|
|PLC||Product life cycle|
|R+D||Research and development|
|SASAC||State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council in China|
|SCM||Supply chain management|
|SGRE||Siemens Gamesa Renewable Energy|
|SOE||State owned enterprise|
|SDIC||State Development and Investment Corporation|
|US||United States of America|
|USD||United States Dollars|
|WOFE||Wholly owned foreign enterprise|
|WTIV||Wind turbine installation vessel|
|WTG||Wind turbine generator|
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|China Offshore Wind Case Study—Empirical Data Collection Efforts||Interviews||Participant Observation Site Visits||Total Number of Encounters|
|Secondary data gathering—semi-structured interviews||41||0||41|
|Primary data gathering—initial semi-structured “bridge” interviews||47||6||53|
|Primary data gathering—15 formal interviews||15||34||49|
|Trip Timing||Geographical Scope||Total Time Spent||Interviews in China||Participant Observation Site Visits||Earlier Dissemination Efforts|
|September, 2013||China, Hong Kong, Singapore||2 ½ weeks||32 (semi-structured)||4|||
|February, 2014||South Korea, China, Singapore||2 ½ weeks|
|October, 2014||China||2 weeks||15 (semi-structured)||2||N/A|
|July, 2015||Taiwan, South Korea, China||2 ½ weeks||15 (structured, with bi-lingual interview guide)||34|||
|October, 2015||China||2 weeks|
|Research Design||Interviews||Participant Observation Site Visits||Total Encounters||Number of Visits to China||Timing of Visits|
|Initial semi-structured “bridge” interviews||47||6||53||3||2013–2014|
|15 formal interviews||15||34||49||2||2015|
|Initial Semi-Structured “Bridge” Interviews||Developers||WTG OEMs||Shipping/Logistics/Ports||BOP Manufacturing||Sub-Suppliers||Offshore Wind Farm||Other Supply Chain 1||Total|
|Top management in China||-||-||6||-||4||-||5||15|
|Middle Management in China||-||4||14||1||3||-||7||29|
|Execution layer in China||-||-||-||-||-||-||3||3|
|Site layer in China||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||0|
|15 Formal Interviews||Developers||WTG OEMs||Shipping/Logistics/Ports||BOP Manufacturing||Sub-Suppliers||Offshore Wind Farm||Balance Supply Chain 2||Total|
|Top management in China||-||-||2||1||3||-||-||6|
|Middle Management in China||2||1||2||1||1||-||2||9|
|Execution layer in China||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||0|
|Site layer in China||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||0|
|Participant Observation Visits||Developers||WTG OEMs||Shipping/Logistics/Ports||BOP Manufacturing||Sub-Suppliers||Offshore Wind Farm||Balance Supply Chain 2||Total|
|As part of initial semi-structured bridge interview process||-||2||2||1||-||-||1||6|
|As part of process for 15 formal interviews||1||6||8||4||6||2||7||34|
|Grand grand total||102||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|No.||Timing within Research||Site||Timing of Visit||Location||Rationale and Relevance|
|1||First three China trips||ZPMC Offshore Wind||September, 2013||Nantong, Jiangsu||Port-side offshore wind facility built in accordance with the 12th Five Year Plan|
|2||First three China trips||Goldwind Offshore Base||September, 2013||Dafeng, Jiangsu||Offshore wind WTG manufacturing plant of key OEM|
|3||First three China trips||Dafeng port||September, 2013||Dafeng, Jiangsu||Port candidate in Jiangsu for offshore wind focus|
|4||First three China trips||Goldwind headquarters (HQ)||February, 2014||Beijing||HQ discussions on market development and O&M|
|5||First three China trips||China Wind Power||October, 2014||Beijing||China’s premier wind conference, conducted annually in Beijing|
|6||First three China trips||China Ocean Shipping Company (COSCO)||October, 2014||Guangzhou||Opening of case access|
|7||Last two China trips||Case OEM Shanghai sales office||July, 2015||Shanghai||Formal interviews|
|8||Last two China trips||Case OEM HQ and manufacturing facilities visit||July, 2015||Shainghai, Jiangyin, Jiangsu||HQ discussions and WTG manufacturing facilities site visit of case OEM|
|9||Last two China trips||Non-Chinese blade manufacturer||July, 2015||Jiangyin, Jiangsu||Blade manufacturing supplier to case OEM|
|10||Last two China trips||Jiangyin port||July, 2015||Jiangyin, Jiangsu||Export port for case OEM nacelles and LM Windpower blades|
|11||Last two China trips||Longyuan Rudong Intertidal Trial Offshore Wind Farm||July, 2015||Rudong, Jiangsu||Test OWF of Longyuan with 9 different OEMs and 10 different foundation types represented|
|12||Last two China trips||Haili Wind Power Equipment Technology||July, 2015||Rudong, Jiangsu||Tower and monopile manufacturing facilities of Haili|
|13||Last two China trips||Jiangsu Longyuan Zhenhua Marine Engineering||July, 2015||Nantong, Jiangsu||Offshore wind engineering, procurement, construction, and installation (EPCi) type JV between Longyuan and ZPMC division of China Communications Construction Company (CCCC) with focus on shipping and logistics/EPCi|
|14||Last two China trips||China Wind Power||October, 2015||Beijing||China’s premier wind conference, conducted annually in Beijing|
|15||Last two China trips||Tianjin Economic Development Area||October, 2015||Tianjin||China’s third major export processing zone after Guangdong and Pudong|
|16||Last two China trips||Non-Chinese WTG gear sub-supplier||October, 2015||Tianjin||Gear sub-supplier manufacturing facility in Tianjin|
|17||Last two China trips||Non-Chinese WTG cooling systems sub-supplier||October, 2015||Tianjin||Cooling systems sub-supplier manufacturing facility in Tianjin|
|18||Last two China trips||Tianjin Orient Container Terminal||October, 2015||Tianjin||DP World container terminal in Tianjin|
|19||Last two China trips||Shanghai Haitong International Automobile Terminal||October, 2015||Pudong, Shanghai||Wallenius Wilhelmsen Logistics Roll-On/Roll-Off terminal in Shanghai where e.g., GE wind modules are frequently shipped from|
|20||Last two China trips||Case OEM Shanghai sales office||October, 2015||Shanghai||Formal interviews|
|21||Last two China trips||Case OEM HQ and manufacturing facilities||October, 2015||Shanghai and Jiangyin, Jiangsu||HQ discussions and WTG manufacturing facilities site visit of case OEM|
|22||Last two China trips||Non-Chinese blade manufacturer||October, 2015||Jiangyin, Jiangsu||Blade manufacturing supplier to case OEM|
|23||Last two China trips||Longyuan Rudong Intertidal Trial Offshore Wind Farm||October, 2015||Rudong, Jiangsu||Test OWF of Longyuan with 9 different OEMs and 10 different foundation types represented|
|24||Last two China trips||COSCO Nantong||October, 2015||Nantong, Jiangsu||Shipyard of the COSCO Group with experience in constructing wind turbine installation vessels (WTIVs)|
|25||Last two China trips||Jiangsu Longyuan Zhenhua Marine Engineering||October, 2015||Nantong, Jiangsu||Offshore wind EPCi type JV between Longyuan and ZPMC division of CCCC with focus on shipping and logistics/EPCi|
|Research Design||Number of Firms||Firm Split (Percentage)|
|Danish Firms/Danish Personnel||25||61.0%|
|Chinese Firms/Chinese Personnel||16||39.0%|
|Organizational Levels||Developers||WTG OEMs||Shipping/Logistics/Ports||BOP Manufacturing||Sub-suppliers||Offshore Wind Farm||Other Supply Chain||Total|
|Top management in China||-||-||4||-||5||-||2||11|
|Middle Management in China||-||2||3||-||4||-||9||18|
|Execution layer in China||-||-||2||-||-||-||10||12|
|Site layer in China||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||0|
|Onshore—Installed Capacity (MW)||2000||2005||2010||2015||Growth Factor (2015 over 2000)||CAGR (2005–2015)|
|China share in % of globally installed||2.0%||2.1%||22.6%||33.4%||-||-|
|Province||Number of Projects Included in Feed-In-Tariff||Corresponding Capacity in Feed-In-Tariff (MW)||Original 12th Five Year Plan Target (MW)|
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Poulsen, T.; Hasager, C.B. The (R)evolution of China: Offshore Wind Diffusion. Energies 2017, 10, 2153. https://doi.org/10.3390/en10122153
Poulsen T, Hasager CB. The (R)evolution of China: Offshore Wind Diffusion. Energies. 2017; 10(12):2153. https://doi.org/10.3390/en10122153Chicago/Turabian Style
Poulsen, Thomas, and Charlotte Bay Hasager. 2017. "The (R)evolution of China: Offshore Wind Diffusion" Energies 10, no. 12: 2153. https://doi.org/10.3390/en10122153