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Energies 2017, 10(12), 2152; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10122152

LNG Regasification Terminals: The Role of Geography and Meteorology on Technology Choices

1
Queensland University of Technology (QUT), 2 George Street, Brisbane, QLD 4000, Australia
2
Biofuel Engine Research Facility, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), 2 George Street, Brisbane, QLD 4000, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 6 December 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 16 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sources)
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Abstract

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects are regulated by host countries, but policy and regulation should depend on geography and meteorology. Without considering the role of geography and meteorology, sub-optimal design choices can result, leading to energy conversion efficiency and capital investment decisions that are less than ideal. A key step in LNG is regasification, which transforms LNG back from liquid to the gaseous state and requires substantial heat input. This study investigated different LNG regasification technologies used around the world and benchmarked location and meteorology-related factors, such as seawater temperatures, ambient air temperatures, wind speeds and relative humidity. Seawater vaporizers are used for more than 95% of locations subject to water quality. Ambient air conditions are relatively better for South America, India, Spain and other Asian countries (Singapore, Taiwan, Indonesia, and Thailand) and provide a much cleaner regasification technology option for natural and forced draft systems and air-based intermediate fluid vaporizers. On a global basis, cold energy utilization currently represents <1% of the total potential, but this approach could deliver nearly 12 Gigawatt (GW) per annum. Overall, climate change is expected to have a positive financial impact on the LNG regasification industry, but the improvement could be unevenly distributed. View Full-Text
Keywords: liquefied natural gas (LNG) cold energy; LNG; vaporizer; regasification; meteorology; geography; climate change liquefied natural gas (LNG) cold energy; LNG; vaporizer; regasification; meteorology; geography; climate change
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Agarwal, R.; Rainey, T.J.; Rahman, S.M.A.; Steinberg, T.; Perrons, R.K.; Brown, R.J. LNG Regasification Terminals: The Role of Geography and Meteorology on Technology Choices. Energies 2017, 10, 2152.

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