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Open AccessArticle

Reducing WCET Overestimations by Correcting Errors in Loop Bound Constraints

1
School of Computer Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China
2
School of Information Engineering, Northeast Electric Power University, Jilin 132012, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2017, 10(12), 2113; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10122113
Received: 12 November 2017 / Revised: 3 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 12 December 2017
In order to reduce overestimations of worst-case execution time (WCET), in this article, we firstly report a kind of specific WCET overestimation caused by non-orthogonal nested loops. Then, we propose a novel correction approach which has three basic steps. The first step is to locate the worst-case execution path (WCEP) in the control flow graph and then map it onto source code. The second step is to identify non-orthogonal nested loops from the WCEP by means of an abstract syntax tree. The last step is to recursively calculate the WCET errors caused by the loose loop bound constraints, and then subtract the total errors from the overestimations. The novelty lies in the fact that the WCET correction is only conducted on the non-branching part of WCEP, thus avoiding potential safety risks caused by possible WCEP switches. Experimental results show that our approach reduces the specific WCET overestimation by an average of more than 82%, and 100% of corrected WCET is no less than the actual WCET. Thus, our approach is not only effective but also safe. It will help developers to design energy-efficient and safe real-time systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: real-time system; software safety; WCET analysis; worst-case execution path; loop bound real-time system; software safety; WCET analysis; worst-case execution path; loop bound
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Meng, F.; Su, X. Reducing WCET Overestimations by Correcting Errors in Loop Bound Constraints. Energies 2017, 10, 2113.

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