Next Article in Journal
Where Diffusion of Clean Technologies and Barriers to Innovation Clash: Application to the Global Diffusion of the Electrical Arc Furnace
Next Article in Special Issue
Application of Liquid Hydrogen with SMES for Efficient Use of Renewable Energy in the Energy Internet
Previous Article in Journal
Power Quality Disturbance Classification Using the S-Transform and Probabilistic Neural Network
Previous Article in Special Issue
Pressure Fluctuations in the S-Shaped Region of a Reversible Pump-Turbine
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Energies 2017, 10(1), 108;

Large-Scale Electrochemical Energy Storage in High Voltage Grids: Overview of the Italian Experience

Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padova, 35100 Padova, Italy
Terna Rete Italia, 00156 Rome, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Rui Xiong, Hailong Li and Joe (Xuan) Zhou
Received: 24 October 2016 / Revised: 14 December 2016 / Accepted: 10 January 2017 / Published: 17 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Energy Storage Technologies and Their Applications (AESA))
Full-Text   |   PDF [7561 KB, uploaded 17 January 2017]   |  


This paper offers a wide overview on the large-scale electrochemical energy projects installed in the high voltage Italian grid. Detailed descriptions of energy (charge/discharge times of about 8 h) and power intensive (charge/discharge times ranging from 0.5 h to 4 h) installations are presented with some insights into the authorization procedures, safety features, and ancillary services. These different charge/discharge times reflect the different operation uses inside the electric grid. Energy intensive storage aims at decoupling generation and utilization since, in the southern part of Italy, there has been a great growth of wind farms: these areas are characterized by a surplus of generation with respect to load absorption and to the net transport capacity of the 150 kV high voltage backbones. Power intensive storage aims at providing ancillary services inside the electric grid as primary and secondary frequency regulation, synthetic rotational inertia, and further functionalities. The return on experience of Italian installations will be able to play a key role also for other countries and other transmission system operators. View Full-Text
Keywords: large-scale electrochemical storage; energy and power intensive; ancillary services large-scale electrochemical storage; energy and power intensive; ancillary services

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Benato, R.; Bruno, G.; Palone, F.; Polito, R.M.; Rebolini, M. Large-Scale Electrochemical Energy Storage in High Voltage Grids: Overview of the Italian Experience. Energies 2017, 10, 108.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top