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Article

Friends or Foes? Cytotoxicity, HPTLC and NMR Analyses of Some Important Naturally Occurring Hydroxyanthraquinones

1
The School of Pharmacy, University College London, 29-39 Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AX, UK
2
Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Najran University, P.B. Box 1988, Najran 11001, Saudi Arabia
3
School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anna Iwaniak
Nutraceuticals 2021, 1(1), 13-30; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals1010004
Received: 15 September 2021 / Revised: 5 October 2021 / Accepted: 9 October 2021 / Published: 18 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current State of the Art—Nutraceutical Components of Foods)
Hydroxyanthraquinones from plants have been used as both medicinal active ingredients and adulterants in slimming food supplements. Although sensible doses of certain natural hydroxyanthraquinones for laxative effects are generally safe in the short term, chronic intake has been related to tumorigenic, carcinogenic, and genotoxic effects. However, an increasing number of researchers are reporting the antiproliferative properties of the same ingredients in cancer cells, pointing towards a potential nutraceutical value for cancer prevention. Previous studies have evaluated anthraquinones’ anti-proliferative activity against various tumour cell lines and bioavailability in Caco-2 cells. However, there are scarce data about both their cytotoxicity in the later cell line and long-term stability. Therefore, this study will check the purity of several ‘aged’ samples using mutually complementary analytical techniques such as HPTLC and NMR assays as well as evaluate the anti-proliferative activity of the purest of these samples using the Caco-2 cell line. The chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses confirmed the long-term stability of those compounds, and their cytotoxic activity resulted in chrysazin (15 µg/mL) > catenarin (27.29 µg/mL) > rhein (49.55 µg/mL) > helminthosporin (52.91 µg/mL) > aloe-emodin (55.34 µg/mL). Our succinct review of the cytotoxicity of these compounds afforded two results: that this is the first clear report for catenarin being active in colon cancer cells and that this class of compounds needs to be better studied to clearly evaluate their benefit/risk profile in regard to both new chemo preventative nutraceuticals and anticancer therapies. View Full-Text
Keywords: anthraquinones; cancer; Caco-2; NMR; cytotoxicity anthraquinones; cancer; Caco-2; NMR; cytotoxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Al Kazman, B.S.M.; Prieto, J.M. Friends or Foes? Cytotoxicity, HPTLC and NMR Analyses of Some Important Naturally Occurring Hydroxyanthraquinones. Nutraceuticals 2021, 1, 13-30. https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals1010004

AMA Style

Al Kazman BSM, Prieto JM. Friends or Foes? Cytotoxicity, HPTLC and NMR Analyses of Some Important Naturally Occurring Hydroxyanthraquinones. Nutraceuticals. 2021; 1(1):13-30. https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals1010004

Chicago/Turabian Style

Al Kazman, Bassam S. M., and Jose M. Prieto. 2021. "Friends or Foes? Cytotoxicity, HPTLC and NMR Analyses of Some Important Naturally Occurring Hydroxyanthraquinones" Nutraceuticals 1, no. 1: 13-30. https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals1010004

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