High-Heat Days and Presentations to Emergency Departments in Regional Victoria, Australia
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Weather Data—Identification of Days of High-Heat
2.2. ICD-10-AM Codes
2.3. Farming and Non-Farming Town
2.4. Data Extraction and Analysis
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Victorian Bureau of Meteorology Weather Station||Acute Hospital||Temperature Cut-off Point (95th Temperature Percentile)|
|Cape Otway Lighthouse||Otway Health||33.2 °C|
|Mortlake Racecourse||Timboon and District Health Service|
Terang and Mortlake Health Service
South West Healthcare—Camperdown
|Warrnambool Airport||South West Healthcare—Warrnambool||34.1 °C|
|Mount Gellibrand||Colac Area Health||36.7 °C|
|Portland Cashmore Airport||Portland District Health||33.0 °C|
|Hamilton Airport||Western District Health Service—Hamilton||36.8 °C|
|Port Fairy||Moyne Health Service||34.4 °C|
|Major Diagnostic Block||Number of Included Diagnoses|
|Injury, single site, major||186|
|Circulatory system illness||46|
|Alcohol/drug abuse and alcohol-/drug-induced mental disorders||36|
|Respiratory system illness||28|
|Injury, single site, minor||28|
|Urological system illness||19|
|Illness of the ear, nose, and throat||19|
|Neurological system illness||17|
|Endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic system illness||14|
|Other presentation (not listed elsewhere)||11|
|Injury, multiple sites||11|
|Blood/immune system illness||3|
|Illness of skin, subcutaneous tissue, breast||2|
|Musculoskeletal/connective tissue system illness||2|
|Hepatobiliary system illness||2|
|Digestive system illness||1|
|Major Diagnostic Blocks||Overall Presentations||Farming Areas||Non-Farming Areas|
n (Rate per Day)
n (Rate per Day)
|Difference per Day||% Difference on High-Heat Days (Rounded)||High-Heat Days|
n (Rate per Day)
|Non-High-Heat Days n (Rate per Day)||Difference per Day||% Difference on High-Heat Days|
|Injury (multiple sites, single site major, single site minor)||15,776||41 (1.72)||1251 (2.91)||−1.2||−41%||579 (24.33)||13,905 (32.38)||−8.05||−25%|
|Digestive system |
|6630||24 (1.01)||459 (1.07)||−0.06||−6%||305 (12.82)||5842 (13.61)||−0.79||−6%|
|Circulatory system illness||5051||16 (0.67)||274 (0.64)||0.03||5%||268 (11.26)||4493 (10.46)||0.80||8%|
|Respiratory system illness||3877||17 (0.71)||274 (0.64)||0.08||12%||187 (7.86)||3399 (7.92)||−0.06||−1%|
|Musculoskeletal/connective tissue system illness||3215||7 (0.29)||212 (0.49)||−0.20||−40%||150 (6.30)||2846 (6.63)||−0.33||−5%|
|Neurological system illness||3089||8 (0.34)||201 (0.47)||−0.13||−28%||149 (6.26)||2731 (6.36)||−0.10||−2%|
|Other (alcohol/drug abuse and alcohol-/drug-induced mental disorders; allergy; blood/immune system illness; endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic system illness; gynaecological illness; hepatobiliary system illness; illness of other and unknown symptoms; illness of the eyes; injury, multiple sites; male reproductive system illness; newborn/neonate illness; obstetric illness; poisoning; psychiatric illness; social problem; other presentation *)||20,780||71 (2.98)||1528 (3.56)||−0.58||−16%||1024 (43.03)||18,157 (42.28)||0.74||2%|
|Total||58,418||184 (7.73)||4199 (9.78)||−2.05||−21%||2662 (111.85)||51,373 (119.64)||−7.79||−7%|
|Characteristics of ED Presentations||Overall||Days of Extreme Heat||Days of Non-Extreme Heat|
|N (%)||Farming Areas|
|Male||30,013 (48.7%)||110 (55.3%)||1399 (48.8%)||1||0.79||2260 (52.1%)||26,244 (48.4%)||1||<0.001|
|Female||31,618 (51.3%)||89 (44.7%)||1466 (51.2%)||2081 (47.9%)||27,982 (51.6%)|
|Arrival Transport Mode *||1||0.020||1||<0.001|
|Ambulance Service (Air Ambulance, Ambulance Service, Helicopter, Road Ambulance, police vehicle)||10,543 (17.1%)||24 (12.3%)||540 (19.1%)||536 (12.4%)||9443 (17.5%)|
|Other (Private car, community/public transport/voluntary drivers)||50,792 (82.4%)||171 (87.7%)||2293 (80.9%)||3372 (87.6%)||44,556 (82.5%)|
|Triage Category **||3||0.033||3||<0.001|
|Resuscitation and Emergency||5681 (9.2%)||20 (10.0%)||283 (9.9%)||374 (8.6%)||5004 (9.2%)|
|Urgent||19,689 (31.9%)||61 (30.8%)||1008 (35.2%)||1244 (28.7%)||17,376 (32.1%)|
|Semi Urgent||27,651 (44.9%)||79 (39.9%)||1224 (42.8%)||1966 (45.3%)||24,382 (45.0%)|
|Non-Urgent||8589 (13.9%)||38 (19.2%)||345 (12.1%)||756 (17.4%)||7450 (13.7%)|
|Departure Status ***||2||0.661||2||<0.001|
|Admitted||15,754 (25.7%)||58 (29.9%)||759 (26.9%)||1052 (24.4%)||13,885 (25.7%)|
|Discharged home||41,487 (67.7%)||120 (61.9%)||1818 (64.3%)||3059 (71.0%)||36,490 (67.6%)|
|Left at own risk/after clinical advice||3981 (6.5%)||16 (8.2%)||245 (8.7%)||192 (4.5%)||3528 (6.5%)|
|Modified Monash Model||1||<0.001||1||<0.001|
|MMM4 or less||40,412 (65.6%)||13 (6.5%)||2037 (71.1%)||222 (5.1%)||38,140 (70.3%)|
|MMM5||21,219 (34.4%)||186 (93.5%)||828 (28.9%)||4119 (94.9%)||16,086 (29.7%)|
|Index of Relative Socio-economic Advantage and Disadvantage (ISRAD)||1||<0.001||1||<0.001|
|2–4||46,864 (76.0%)||64 (32.2%)||2306 (80.5%)||1329 (30.6%)||43,165 (79.6%)|
|5–7||12,730 (20.7%)||124 (62.3%)||468 (16.3%)||2693 (62.0%)||9445 (17.4%)|
|8–10||2037 (3.3%)||11 (5.5%)||91 (3.2%)||319 (7.3%)||1616 (3.0%)|
|Model||Chi-Square||Degrees of Freedom||p-Value||Odds Ratio||95% Confidence Intervals|
|Adjusted Gender and Age *||17.65||1||<0.001||0.80||0.72||0.89|
|Confounder Adjusted **||7.78||1||0.005||0.83||0.73||0.95|
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Adams, J.; Brumby, S.; Kloot, K.; Baker, T.; Mohebbi, M. High-Heat Days and Presentations to Emergency Departments in Regional Victoria, Australia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 2131. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042131
Adams J, Brumby S, Kloot K, Baker T, Mohebbi M. High-Heat Days and Presentations to Emergency Departments in Regional Victoria, Australia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(4):2131. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042131Chicago/Turabian Style
Adams, Jessie, Susan Brumby, Kate Kloot, Tim Baker, and Mohammadreza Mohebbi. 2022. "High-Heat Days and Presentations to Emergency Departments in Regional Victoria, Australia" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 4: 2131. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042131