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Article

Higher Levels of Postnatal Depressive Symptomatology, Post-Traumatic Growth, and Life Satisfaction among Gay Fathers through Surrogacy in Comparison to Heterosexual Fathers: A Study in Israel in Times of COVID-19

1
Baruch Ivcher School of Psychology, Reichman University (IDC Herzliya), Herzliya 4610101, Israel
2
Statistical Education Unit, The Academic College of Tel Aviv—Yaffo, Yaffo 61083, Israel
3
School of Behavioral Sciences, The Academic College of Tel Aviv—Yaffo, Yaffo 61083, Israel
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(13), 7946; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19137946
Received: 9 June 2022 / Revised: 26 June 2022 / Accepted: 27 June 2022 / Published: 28 June 2022
This study aimed to explore the psychological welfare, as indicated by postnatal depressive symptomatology, life satisfaction, and posttraumatic growth (growth after contending with stressful birth events), of Israeli gay fathers through surrogacy in comparison to heterosexual fathers. For that purpose, a sample of 167 Israeli fathers (M = 35.6, SD = 4.4) was recruited (68 identified as gay fathers through surrogacy and 99 as heterosexual fathers). Participants completed questionnaires assessing their postnatal depressive symptomatology, life satisfaction, and sense of posttraumatic growth after becoming fathers. Results indicated that gay fathers through surrogacy reported higher levels of life satisfaction and posttraumatic growth than heterosexual fathers. Yet, gay fathers also reported higher levels of postnatal depressive symptomatology than heterosexual fathers when life satisfaction or posttraumatic growth values were low or medium. The findings were interpreted in light of the hardships associated with cross-border surrogacy and the psychological outcomes associated with succeeding to become fathers after contending with them. The study contributes to the limited literature on postnatal depressive symptomatology and posttraumatic growth among gay fathers through surrogacy and provides clinicians and policymakers with relevant information on the psychological strengths and potential difficulties associated with cross-border surrogacy among gay fathers. View Full-Text
Keywords: postnatal depression; growth; gay men; same-sex parents; gay fathers; surrogacy; Israel postnatal depression; growth; gay men; same-sex parents; gay fathers; surrogacy; Israel
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shenkman, G.; Levy, S.; Winkler, Z.B.-D.; Bass, D.; Geller, S. Higher Levels of Postnatal Depressive Symptomatology, Post-Traumatic Growth, and Life Satisfaction among Gay Fathers through Surrogacy in Comparison to Heterosexual Fathers: A Study in Israel in Times of COVID-19. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 7946. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19137946

AMA Style

Shenkman G, Levy S, Winkler ZB-D, Bass D, Geller S. Higher Levels of Postnatal Depressive Symptomatology, Post-Traumatic Growth, and Life Satisfaction among Gay Fathers through Surrogacy in Comparison to Heterosexual Fathers: A Study in Israel in Times of COVID-19. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(13):7946. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19137946

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shenkman, Geva, Sigal Levy, Ziv Ben-Dor Winkler, Doriel Bass, and Shulamit Geller. 2022. "Higher Levels of Postnatal Depressive Symptomatology, Post-Traumatic Growth, and Life Satisfaction among Gay Fathers through Surrogacy in Comparison to Heterosexual Fathers: A Study in Israel in Times of COVID-19" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 13: 7946. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19137946

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