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Open AccessArticle

Radon Activity Concentrations in Natural Hot Spring Water: Dose Assessment and Health Perspective

1
Centre for Technology of Radiation Safety and Metrology, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Jakarta 12440, Indonesia
2
Department of Radiation Science, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki 036-8504, Japan
3
Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki 036-8504, Japan
4
Centre for Nuclear Minerals Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Jakarta 12440, Indonesia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 920; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18030920
Received: 25 December 2020 / Revised: 19 January 2021 / Accepted: 20 January 2021 / Published: 21 January 2021
The world community has long used natural hot springs for tourist and medicinal purposes. In Indonesia, the province of West Java, which is naturally surrounded by volcanoes, is the main destination for hot spring tourism. This paper is the first report on radon measurements in tourism natural hot spring water in Indonesia as part of radiation protection for public health. The purpose of this paper is to study the contribution of radon doses from natural hot spring water and thereby facilitate radiation protection for public health. A total of 18 water samples were measured with an electrostatic collection type radon monitor (RAD7, Durridge Co., USA). The concentration of radon in natural hot spring water samples in the West Java region, Indonesia ranges from 0.26 to 31 Bq L−1. An estimate of the annual effective dose in the natural hot spring water area ranges from 0.51 to 0.71 mSv with a mean of 0.60 mSv for workers. Meanwhile, the annual effective dose for the public ranges from 0.10 to 0.14 mSv with an average of 0.12 mSv. This value is within the range of the average committed effective dose from inhalation and terrestrial radiation for the general public, 1.7 mSv annually. View Full-Text
Keywords: radon; hot spring; dose assessment; public health radon; hot spring; dose assessment; public health
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nugraha, E.D.; Hosoda, M.; Mellawati, J.; Untara, U.; Rosianna, I.; Tamakuma, Y.; Modibo, O.B.; Kranrod, C.; Kusdiana, K.; Tokonami, S. Radon Activity Concentrations in Natural Hot Spring Water: Dose Assessment and Health Perspective. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 920. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18030920

AMA Style

Nugraha ED, Hosoda M, Mellawati J, Untara U, Rosianna I, Tamakuma Y, Modibo OB, Kranrod C, Kusdiana K, Tokonami S. Radon Activity Concentrations in Natural Hot Spring Water: Dose Assessment and Health Perspective. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(3):920. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18030920

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nugraha, Eka D.; Hosoda, Masahiro; Mellawati, June; Untara, Untara; Rosianna, Ilsa; Tamakuma, Yuki; Modibo, Oumar B.; Kranrod, Chutima; Kusdiana, Kusdiana; Tokonami, Shinji. 2021. "Radon Activity Concentrations in Natural Hot Spring Water: Dose Assessment and Health Perspective" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 3: 920. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18030920

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