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Association between Maternal Exposure to Chemicals during Pregnancy and the Risk of Foetal Death: The Japan Environment and Children’s Study

1
Department of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Chuo-shi 409-3898, Yamanashi, Japan
2
Center for Birth Cohort Studies, University of Yamanashi, Chuo-shi 409-3898, Yamanashi, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Study group members are listed in the Acknowledgments.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(22), 11748; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182211748
Received: 22 September 2021 / Revised: 29 October 2021 / Accepted: 5 November 2021 / Published: 9 November 2021
Scarce knowledge is available on the relationship between maternal chemical exposure during pregnancy and foetal deaths. We studied the association of spontaneous abortions and stillbirths with occupational or daily maternal exposure to chemicals commonly used by pregnant women. Data from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS), a nationwide prospective birth cohort study, were used. The participants of the study were asked about the frequency of their use of gasoline, pesticides, hair dye, and chlorine bleach during the first and the second to third trimesters of pregnancy. We investigated the relationship between the frequency of the use of chemicals and foetal death. Of the 104,065 foetuses, 923 (0.91%) were spontaneous abortions and 379 (0.37%) were stillbirths. Any type of exposure during the first trimester was not significantly associated with spontaneous abortions. Nevertheless, a more than weekly occupational use of hair dye from the first to the second/third trimester was significantly associated with stillbirth. The results of this study suggest that the frequent use of hair dye during pregnancy can have severe adverse effects on the foetus. These findings can help pregnant women, especially hairdressers, refrain from the continuous use of hair dyes. View Full-Text
Keywords: foetal death; hair dye; stillbirth; spontaneous abortion; pregnancy; maternal exposure; chemical exposure; hairdressers foetal death; hair dye; stillbirth; spontaneous abortion; pregnancy; maternal exposure; chemical exposure; hairdressers
MDPI and ACS Style

Ooka, T.; Horiuchi, S.; Shinohara, R.; Kojima, R.; Akiyama, Y.; Miyake, K.; Otawa, S.; Yokomichi, H.; Yamagata, Z.; on behalf of the Japan Environment and Children’s Study Group. Association between Maternal Exposure to Chemicals during Pregnancy and the Risk of Foetal Death: The Japan Environment and Children’s Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 11748. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182211748

AMA Style

Ooka T, Horiuchi S, Shinohara R, Kojima R, Akiyama Y, Miyake K, Otawa S, Yokomichi H, Yamagata Z, on behalf of the Japan Environment and Children’s Study Group. Association between Maternal Exposure to Chemicals during Pregnancy and the Risk of Foetal Death: The Japan Environment and Children’s Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(22):11748. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182211748

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ooka, Tadao, Sayaka Horiuchi, Ryoji Shinohara, Reiji Kojima, Yuka Akiyama, Kunio Miyake, Sanae Otawa, Hiroshi Yokomichi, Zentaro Yamagata, and on behalf of the Japan Environment and Children’s Study Group. 2021. "Association between Maternal Exposure to Chemicals during Pregnancy and the Risk of Foetal Death: The Japan Environment and Children’s Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 22: 11748. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182211748

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