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Article

Identifying Prenatal and Postnatal Determinants of Infant Growth: A Structural Equation Modelling Based Cohort Analysis

1
School of Social Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF14 4YS, UK
2
Centre for Health Technology, Faculty of Health, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK
3
WHO Collaborating Centre on Investment for Health and Well-Being, Public Health Wales, Cardiff CF10 4BZ, UK
4
Health Data Research UK, Institute of Life Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK
5
School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: José Carmelo Adsuar
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(19), 10265; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910265
Received: 6 September 2021 / Revised: 21 September 2021 / Accepted: 26 September 2021 / Published: 29 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Promotion of Physical Activity in Early Childhood)
Background: The growth and maturation of infants reflect their overall health and nutritional status. The purpose of this study is to examine the associations of prenatal and early postnatal factors with infant growth (IG). Methods: A data-driven model was constructed by structural equation modelling to examine the relationships between pre- and early postnatal environmental factors and IG at age 12 months. The IG was a latent variable created from infant weight and waist circumference. Data were obtained on 274 mother–child pairs during pregnancy and the postnatal periods. Results: Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI emerged as an important predictor of IG with both direct and indirect (mediated through infant birth weight) effects. Infants who gained more weight from birth to 6 months and consumed starchy foods daily at age 12 months, were more likely to be larger by age 12 months. Infant physical activity (PA) levels also emerged as a determinant. The constructed model provided a reasonable fit (χ2 (11) = 21.5, p < 0.05; RMSEA = 0.07; CFI = 0.94; SRMR = 0.05) to the data with significant pathways for all examined variables. Conclusion: Promoting healthy weight amongst women of child bearing age is important in preventing childhood obesity, and increasing daily infant PA is as important as a healthy infant diet. View Full-Text
Keywords: infant growth; structural equation modelling; pregnancy; public health; physical activity; paediatrics; obesity; postnatal development infant growth; structural equation modelling; pregnancy; public health; physical activity; paediatrics; obesity; postnatal development
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MDPI and ACS Style

Morgan, K.; Zhou, S.-M.; Hill, R.; Lyons, R.A.; Paranjothy, S.; Brophy, S.T. Identifying Prenatal and Postnatal Determinants of Infant Growth: A Structural Equation Modelling Based Cohort Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 10265. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910265

AMA Style

Morgan K, Zhou S-M, Hill R, Lyons RA, Paranjothy S, Brophy ST. Identifying Prenatal and Postnatal Determinants of Infant Growth: A Structural Equation Modelling Based Cohort Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(19):10265. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910265

Chicago/Turabian Style

Morgan, Kelly, Shang-Ming Zhou, Rebecca Hill, Ronan A. Lyons, Shantini Paranjothy, and Sinead T. Brophy. 2021. "Identifying Prenatal and Postnatal Determinants of Infant Growth: A Structural Equation Modelling Based Cohort Analysis" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 19: 10265. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910265

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