Next Article in Journal
Nursing-Sensitive Outcomes among Patients Cared for in Paediatric Intensive Care Units: A Scoping Review
Next Article in Special Issue
Performances of Limited Area Models for the WORKLIMATE Heat–Health Warning System to Protect Worker’s Health and Productivity in Italy
Previous Article in Journal
Economic Policy Uncertainty, Environmental Regulation, and Green Innovation—An Empirical Study Based on Chinese High-Tech Enterprises
Previous Article in Special Issue
Steps Towards Comprehensive Heat Communication in the Frame of a Heat Health Warning System in Slovenia
 
 
Article

Selecting Thresholds of Heat-Warning Systems with Substantial Enhancement of Essential Population Health Outcomes for Facilitating Implementation

1
Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan
2
Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
3
Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
4
Institute of Statistical Science, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ana Casanueva, Marco Morabito and Annkatrin Burgstall
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(18), 9506; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189506
Received: 12 July 2021 / Revised: 3 September 2021 / Accepted: 3 September 2021 / Published: 9 September 2021
Most heat-health studies identified thresholds just outside human comfort zones, which are often too low to be used in heat-warning systems for reducing climate-related health risks. We refined a generalized additive model for selecting thresholds with substantial health risk enhancement, based on Taiwan population records of 2000–2017, considering lag effects and different spatial scales. Reference-adjusted risk ratio (RaRR) is proposed, defined as the ratio between the relative risk of an essential health outcome for a threshold candidate against that for a reference; the threshold with the highest RaRR is potentially the optimal one. It was found that the wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) is a more sensitive heat-health indicator than temperature. At lag 0, the highest RaRR (1.66) with WBGT occurred in emergency visits of children, while that in hospital visits occurred for the working-age group (1.19), presumably due to high exposure while engaging in outdoor activities. For most sex, age, and sub-region categories, the RaRRs of emergency visits were higher than those of hospital visits and all-cause mortality; thus, emergency visits should be employed (if available) to select heat-warning thresholds. This work demonstrates the applicability of this method to facilitate the establishment of heat-warning systems at city or country scales by authorities worldwide. View Full-Text
Keywords: health adaptation; Sustainable Development Goal 3; heat-health threshold identification; extreme events and health health adaptation; Sustainable Development Goal 3; heat-health threshold identification; extreme events and health
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Lung, S.-C.C.; Yeh, J.-C.J.; Hwang, J.-S. Selecting Thresholds of Heat-Warning Systems with Substantial Enhancement of Essential Population Health Outcomes for Facilitating Implementation. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 9506. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189506

AMA Style

Lung S-CC, Yeh J-CJ, Hwang J-S. Selecting Thresholds of Heat-Warning Systems with Substantial Enhancement of Essential Population Health Outcomes for Facilitating Implementation. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(18):9506. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189506

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lung, Shih-Chun Candice, Jou-Chen Joy Yeh, and Jing-Shiang Hwang. 2021. "Selecting Thresholds of Heat-Warning Systems with Substantial Enhancement of Essential Population Health Outcomes for Facilitating Implementation" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 18: 9506. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189506

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop