Next Article in Journal
Bioelectric Effect of a Microcurrent Toothbrush on Plaque Removal
Previous Article in Journal
Validity Evidence of the Multidimensional Emotional Disorders Inventory among Non-Clinical Spanish University Students
Article

Soy and Frequent Dairy Consumption with Subsequent Equol Production Reveals Decreased Gut Health in a Cohort of Healthy Puerto Rican Women

1
Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Universidad Central del Caribe, Bayamón 00956, Puerto Rico
2
Department of Microbiology and Medical Zoology, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan 00921, Puerto Rico
3
Department of Biology, University of Puerto Rico, Bayamón 00959, Puerto Rico
4
Retrovirus Research Center, Internal Medicine Department, School of Medicine, Universidad Central del Caribe, Bayamón 00956, Puerto Rico
5
Hematology and Oncology Group, HIMA-San Pablo Bayamón Hospital, Bayamón 00961, Puerto Rico
6
Department of Biochemistry, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan 00921, Puerto Rico
7
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Division of Public Health Sciences, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(16), 8254; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168254
Received: 15 June 2021 / Revised: 23 July 2021 / Accepted: 26 July 2021 / Published: 4 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Significance of Human Microbiomes)
The U.S. Hispanic female population has one of the highest breast cancer (BC) incidence and mortality rates, while BC is the leading cause of cancer death in Puerto Rican women. Certain foods may predispose to carcinogenesis. Our previous studies indicate that consuming combined soy isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, and glycitein) promotes tumor metastasis possibly through increased protein synthesis activated by equol, a secondary dietary metabolite. Equol is a bacterial metabolite produced in about 20–60% of the population that harbor and exhibit specific gut microbiota capable of producing it from daidzein. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence of equol production in Puerto Rican women and identify the equol producing microbiota in this understudied population. Herein, we conducted a cross-sectional characterization of equol production in a clinically based sample of eighty healthy 25–50 year old Puerto Rican women. Urine samples were collected and evaluated by GCMS for the presence of soy isoflavones and metabolites to determine the ratio of equol producers to equol non-producers. Furthermore, fecal samples were collected for gut microbiota characterization on a subset of women using next generation sequencing (NGS). We report that 25% of the participants were classified as equol producers. Importantly, the gut microbiota from equol non-producers demonstrated a higher diversity. Our results suggest that healthy women with soy and high dairy consumption with subsequent equol production may result in gut dysbiosis by having reduced quantities (diversity) of healthy bacterial biomarkers, which might be associated to increased diseased outcomes (e.g., cancer, and other diseases). View Full-Text
Keywords: equol; soy; dairy; gut microbiota; Puerto Rican women equol; soy; dairy; gut microbiota; Puerto Rican women
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Lacourt-Ventura, M.Y.; Vilanova-Cuevas, B.; Rivera-Rodríguez, D.; Rosario-Acevedo, R.; Miranda, C.; Maldonado-Martínez, G.; Maysonet, J.; Vargas, D.; Ruiz, Y.; Hunter-Mellado, R.; Cubano, L.A.; Dharmawardhane, S.; Lampe, J.W.; Baerga-Ortiz, A.; Godoy-Vitorino, F.; Martínez-Montemayor, M.M. Soy and Frequent Dairy Consumption with Subsequent Equol Production Reveals Decreased Gut Health in a Cohort of Healthy Puerto Rican Women. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 8254. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168254

AMA Style

Lacourt-Ventura MY, Vilanova-Cuevas B, Rivera-Rodríguez D, Rosario-Acevedo R, Miranda C, Maldonado-Martínez G, Maysonet J, Vargas D, Ruiz Y, Hunter-Mellado R, Cubano LA, Dharmawardhane S, Lampe JW, Baerga-Ortiz A, Godoy-Vitorino F, Martínez-Montemayor MM. Soy and Frequent Dairy Consumption with Subsequent Equol Production Reveals Decreased Gut Health in a Cohort of Healthy Puerto Rican Women. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(16):8254. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168254

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lacourt-Ventura, Mercedes Y., Brayan Vilanova-Cuevas, Delmarie Rivera-Rodríguez, Raysa Rosario-Acevedo, Christine Miranda, Gerónimo Maldonado-Martínez, Johanna Maysonet, Darlene Vargas, Yelitza Ruiz, Robert Hunter-Mellado, Luis A. Cubano, Suranganie Dharmawardhane, Johanna W. Lampe, Abel Baerga-Ortiz, Filipa Godoy-Vitorino, and Michelle M. Martínez-Montemayor 2021. "Soy and Frequent Dairy Consumption with Subsequent Equol Production Reveals Decreased Gut Health in a Cohort of Healthy Puerto Rican Women" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 16: 8254. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168254

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop