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Article

Concentrations of Seven Phthalate Monoesters in Infants and Toddlers Quantified in Urine Extracted from Diapers

1
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Lausanne, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland
2
Scitec Research SA, Av. De Provence 18, 1007 Lausanne, Switzerland
3
Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Institute of Pharmacological Sciences of Southern Switzerland, Ente Ospedaliero Cantonale, 6900 Lugano, Switzerland
4
Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Università della Svizzera Italiana, 6900 Lugano, Switzerland
5
Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University Hospital Zurich, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
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Swiss Centre for Applied Human Toxicology (SCAHT), University of Basel, 4055 Basel, Switzerland
7
Center for Primary Care and Public Health (Unisanté), University of Lausanne, 1007 Lausanne, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alesia Ferguson, Helena Solo-Gabriele and Stefania La Grutta
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(13), 6806; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18136806
Received: 5 May 2021 / Revised: 13 June 2021 / Accepted: 23 June 2021 / Published: 24 June 2021
Carrying out exposure studies on children who are not toilet trained is challenging because of the difficulty of urine sampling. In this study, we optimized a protocol for urine collection from disposable diapers for the analysis of phthalate metabolites. The exposure of Swiss children (n = 113) between 6 months and 3 years of life to seven phthalates was assessed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry measurements. The study showed limited exposures to phthalates, with only 22% of the samples containing some of the metabolites investigated. The three most frequently detected metabolites were monoethyl phthalate, mono-cyclohexyl phthalate, and mono-benzyl phthalate. We also detected mono-n-octyl phthalate and mono(3,5,5-trimethylhexyl) phthalate, which have rarely been observed in urine from infants and toddlers; therefore, di-n-octyl phthalate and bis(3,5,5-trimethylhexyl) phthalate can be considered as potentially new emerging phthalates. This study presents an initial snapshot of the Swiss children’s exposure to phthalates and provides a promising approach for further phthalate biomonitoring studies on young children using disposable diapers as urine sampling technique. View Full-Text
Keywords: phthalates; urine; endocrine disruptors; biomonitoring; children’s exposure; children’s health; emerging contaminants phthalates; urine; endocrine disruptors; biomonitoring; children’s exposure; children’s health; emerging contaminants
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lucarini, F.; Blanchard, M.; Krasniqi, T.; Duda, N.; Bailat Rosset, G.; Ceschi, A.; Roth, N.; Hopf, N.B.; Broillet, M.-C.; Staedler, D. Concentrations of Seven Phthalate Monoesters in Infants and Toddlers Quantified in Urine Extracted from Diapers. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 6806. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18136806

AMA Style

Lucarini F, Blanchard M, Krasniqi T, Duda N, Bailat Rosset G, Ceschi A, Roth N, Hopf NB, Broillet M-C, Staedler D. Concentrations of Seven Phthalate Monoesters in Infants and Toddlers Quantified in Urine Extracted from Diapers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(13):6806. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18136806

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lucarini, Fiorella, Marc Blanchard, Tropoja Krasniqi, Nicolas Duda, Gaëlle Bailat Rosset, Alessandro Ceschi, Nicolas Roth, Nancy B. Hopf, Marie-Christine Broillet, and Davide Staedler. 2021. "Concentrations of Seven Phthalate Monoesters in Infants and Toddlers Quantified in Urine Extracted from Diapers" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 13: 6806. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18136806

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