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Article

Comparison of Joint Effect of Acute and Chronic Toxicity for Combined Assessment of Heavy Metals on Photobacterium sp.NAA-MIE

1
Department of Land Management, Faculty of Agriculture, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Department of Agricultural Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Pasquale Avino, Massimiliano Errico, Aristide Giuliano and Hamid Salehi
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6644; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126644
Received: 24 April 2021 / Revised: 7 June 2021 / Accepted: 8 June 2021 / Published: 21 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Impact Assessment by Green Processes)
Predicting the crucial effect of single metal pollutants against the aquatic ecosystem has been highly debatable for decades. However, dealing with complex metal mixtures management in toxicological studies creates a challenge, as heavy metals may evoke greater toxicity on interactions with other constituents rather than individually low acting concentrations. Moreover, the toxicity mechanisms are different between short term and long term exposure of the metal toxicant. In this study, acute and chronic toxicity based on luminescence inhibition assay using newly isolated Photobacterium sp.NAA-MIE as the indicator are presented. Photobacterium sp.NAA-MIE was exposed to the mixture at a predetermined ratio of 1:1. TU (Toxicity Unit) and MTI (Mixture Toxic Index) approach presented the mixture toxicity of Hg2+ + Ag+, Hg2+ + Cu2+, Ag+ + Cu2+, Hg2+ + Ag+ + Cu2+, and Cd2+ + Cu2+ showed antagonistic effect over acute and chronic test. Binary mixture of Cu2+ + Zn2+ was observed to show additive effect at acute test and antagonistic effect at chronic test while mixture of Ni2+ + Zn2+ showing antagonistic effect during acute test and synergistic effect during chronic test. Thus, the strain is suitable and their use as bioassay to predict the risk assessment of heavy metal under acute toxicity without abandoning the advantage of chronic toxicity extrapolation. View Full-Text
Keywords: toxicity assessment; luminescent bacteria; acute and chronic toxicity toxicity assessment; luminescent bacteria; acute and chronic toxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Adnan, N.A.; Halmi, M.I.E.; Abd Gani, S.S.; Zaidan, U.H.; Abd Shukor, M.Y. Comparison of Joint Effect of Acute and Chronic Toxicity for Combined Assessment of Heavy Metals on Photobacterium sp.NAA-MIE. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 6644. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126644

AMA Style

Adnan NA, Halmi MIE, Abd Gani SS, Zaidan UH, Abd Shukor MY. Comparison of Joint Effect of Acute and Chronic Toxicity for Combined Assessment of Heavy Metals on Photobacterium sp.NAA-MIE. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(12):6644. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126644

Chicago/Turabian Style

Adnan, Nur A., Mohd I.E. Halmi, Siti S. Abd Gani, Uswatun H. Zaidan, and Mohd Y. Abd Shukor 2021. "Comparison of Joint Effect of Acute and Chronic Toxicity for Combined Assessment of Heavy Metals on Photobacterium sp.NAA-MIE" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 12: 6644. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126644

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