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Article

Estimating Need for Glasses and Hearing Aids in The Gambia: Results from a National Survey and Comparison of Clinical Impairment and Self-Report Assessment Approaches

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International Centre for Evidence in Disability, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK
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Sheikh Zayed Regional Eye Care Centre, Kanifing, The Gambia
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Ear Nose and Throat Unit, Edward Francis Small Teaching Hospital, Banjul, The Gambia
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Lubaga Hospital, Kampala, Uganda
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International Centre for Eye Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK
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National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre for Ophthalmology at Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, London EC1V 9EL, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6302; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126302
Received: 14 April 2021 / Revised: 24 May 2021 / Accepted: 25 May 2021 / Published: 10 June 2021
Few estimates are available of the need for assistive devices (ADs) in African settings. This study aimed to estimate population-level need for glasses and hearing aids in The Gambia based on (1) clinical impairment assessment, and (2) self-reported AD awareness, and explore the relationship between the two methods. The Gambia 2019 National Eye Health Survey is a nationally representative population-based sample of 9188 adults aged 35+ years. Participants underwent standardised clinical vision assessments including the need for glasses (distance and near). Approximately 25% of the sample underwent clinical assessment of hearing and hearing aid need. Data were also collected on self-reported awareness, need and access barriers to vision and hearing ADs. Overall, 5.6% of the study population needed distance glasses (95% CI 5.0–6.3), 45.9% (95% CI 44.2–47.5) needed near glasses and 25.5% (95% CI 22.2–29.2) needed hearing aids. Coverage for each AD was very low (<4%). The agreement between self-report and clinical impairment assessment for AD need was poor. In conclusion, there is high prevalence and very low coverage for distance glasses, near glasses and hearing aids in The Gambia. Self-report measures alone will not provide an accurate estimate of AD need. View Full-Text
Keywords: assistive device; surveys; need; access; glasses; hearing aids; vision impairment; hearing impairment assistive device; surveys; need; access; glasses; hearing aids; vision impairment; hearing impairment
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    Description: File S1: Open Science Framework: Gambia National Eye Health Survey 2019 Study Documents, all the study materials (questionnaires, information and consent forms, show cards, etc.) are available online at https://osf.io/ekcdt (accessed on 24 February 2021).
MDPI and ACS Style

Boggs, D.; Hydara, A.; Faal, Y.; Okoh, J.A.; Olaniyan, S.I.; Sanneh, H.; Ngett, A.; Bah, I.; Aleser, M.; Denis, E.; McCormick, I.; Bright, T.; Bell, S.; Kim, M.; Foster, A.; Kuper, H.; Burton, M.J.; Mactaggart, I.; Polack, S. Estimating Need for Glasses and Hearing Aids in The Gambia: Results from a National Survey and Comparison of Clinical Impairment and Self-Report Assessment Approaches. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 6302. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126302

AMA Style

Boggs D, Hydara A, Faal Y, Okoh JA, Olaniyan SI, Sanneh H, Ngett A, Bah I, Aleser M, Denis E, McCormick I, Bright T, Bell S, Kim M, Foster A, Kuper H, Burton MJ, Mactaggart I, Polack S. Estimating Need for Glasses and Hearing Aids in The Gambia: Results from a National Survey and Comparison of Clinical Impairment and Self-Report Assessment Approaches. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(12):6302. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126302

Chicago/Turabian Style

Boggs, Dorothy; Hydara, Abba; Faal, Yaka; Okoh, John A.; Olaniyan, Segun I.; Sanneh, Haruna; Ngett, Abdoulie; Bah, Isatou; Aleser, Mildred; Denis, Erima; McCormick, Ian; Bright, Tess; Bell, Suzannah; Kim, Minjung; Foster, Allen; Kuper, Hannah; Burton, Matthew J.; Mactaggart, Islay; Polack, Sarah. 2021. "Estimating Need for Glasses and Hearing Aids in The Gambia: Results from a National Survey and Comparison of Clinical Impairment and Self-Report Assessment Approaches" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 12: 6302. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126302

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