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Review

Impact of Nutrition-Based Interventions on Athletic Performance during Menstrual Cycle Phases: A Review

Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition Sciences, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ana Belén Peinado, Erica Wehrwein and Xanne Janse de Jonge
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6294; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126294
Received: 27 April 2021 / Revised: 29 May 2021 / Accepted: 7 June 2021 / Published: 10 June 2021
Despite the steady increase in female participation in sport over the last two decades, comprehensive research on interventions attenuating the influence of female menstrual physiology on performance remains scarce. Studies involving eumenorrheic women often only test in one menstrual phase to limit sex hormone variance, which may restrict the application of these findings to the rest of the menstrual cycle. The impacts of nutrition-based interventions on athletic performance throughout the menstrual cycle have not been fully elucidated. We addressed this gap by conducting a focused critical review of clinical studies that reported athletic outcomes as well as menstrual status for healthy eumenorrheic female participants. In total, 1443 articles were identified, and 23 articles were included. These articles were published between 2011 and 2021, and were retrieved from Google Scholar, Medline, and PubMed. Our literature search revealed that hydration-, micronutrient-, and phytochemical-based interventions can improve athletic performance (measured by aerobic capacity, anaerobic power, and strength performance) or attenuate exercise-induced damage (measured by dehydration biomarkers, muscle soreness, and bone resorption biomarkers). Most performance trials, however, only assessed these interventions in one menstrual phase, limiting the application throughout the entire menstrual cycle. Improvements in athletic performance through nutrition-based interventions may be contingent upon female sex hormone variation in eumenorrheic women. View Full-Text
Keywords: menstrual cycle; female athlete; exercise performance; rehydration; electrolytes; vitamins; minerals; phytochemicals menstrual cycle; female athlete; exercise performance; rehydration; electrolytes; vitamins; minerals; phytochemicals
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MDPI and ACS Style

Helm, M.M.; McGinnis, G.R.; Basu, A. Impact of Nutrition-Based Interventions on Athletic Performance during Menstrual Cycle Phases: A Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 6294. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126294

AMA Style

Helm MM, McGinnis GR, Basu A. Impact of Nutrition-Based Interventions on Athletic Performance during Menstrual Cycle Phases: A Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(12):6294. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126294

Chicago/Turabian Style

Helm, Macy M., Graham R. McGinnis, and Arpita Basu. 2021. "Impact of Nutrition-Based Interventions on Athletic Performance during Menstrual Cycle Phases: A Review" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 12: 6294. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126294

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