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Article

Selective Inhibitory Control in Middle Childhood

1
Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain
2
Unidad de Cartografía Cerebral, Instituto Pluridisciplinar, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
3
Centro Neuromottiva, 28016 Madrid, Spain
4
Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28223 Madrid, Spain
5
Centro de Ciencia Cognitiva—C3, Universidad Antonio de Nebrija, 28015 Madrid, Spain
6
Department of Pediatric Neurology, Hospital Universitario QuirónSalud, 28233 Madrid, Spain
7
School of Medicine, Universidad Europea de Madrid, 28670 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Daniel Adrover-Roig
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6300; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126300
Received: 29 April 2021 / Revised: 5 June 2021 / Accepted: 7 June 2021 / Published: 10 June 2021
The main aim of this study was to investigate the development of selective inhibitory control in middle childhood, a critical period for the maturation of inhibition-related processes. To this end, 64 children aged 6–7 and 56 children aged 10–11 performed a stimulus-selective stop-signal task, which allowed us to estimate not only the efficiency of response inhibition (the stop-signal reaction time or SSRT), but also the strategy adopted by participants to achieve task demands. We found that the adoption of a non-selective (global) strategy characterized by stopping indiscriminately to all stimuli decreased in older children, so that most of them were able to interrupt their ongoing responses selectively at the end of middle childhood. Moreover, compared to younger children, older children were more efficient in their ability to cancel an initiated response (indexed by a shorter SSRT), regardless of which strategy they used. Additionally, we found improvements in other forms of impulsivity, such as the control of premature responding (waiting impulsivity), and attentional-related processes, such as intra-individual variability and distractibility. The present results suggest that middle childhood represents a milestone in the development of crucial aspects of inhibitory control, including selective stopping.
Keywords: executive control; selective stopping; strategies; SSRT; middle childhood executive control; selective stopping; strategies; SSRT; middle childhood
MDPI and ACS Style

Rincón-Pérez, I.; Sánchez-Carmona, A.J.; Arroyo-Lozano, S.; García-Rubio, C.; Hinojosa, J.A.; Fernández-Jaén, A.; López-Martín, S.; Albert, J. Selective Inhibitory Control in Middle Childhood. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 6300. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126300

AMA Style

Rincón-Pérez I, Sánchez-Carmona AJ, Arroyo-Lozano S, García-Rubio C, Hinojosa JA, Fernández-Jaén A, López-Martín S, Albert J. Selective Inhibitory Control in Middle Childhood. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(12):6300. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126300

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rincón-Pérez, Irene; Sánchez-Carmona, Alberto J.; Arroyo-Lozano, Susana; García-Rubio, Carlos; Hinojosa, José Antonio; Fernández-Jaén, Alberto; López-Martín, Sara; Albert, Jacobo. 2021. "Selective Inhibitory Control in Middle Childhood" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 12: 6300. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126300

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