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Article

Toxic Elements in Traditional Kohl-Based Eye Cosmetics in Spanish and German Markets

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Grup de Recerca Infancia i Entorn (GRIE), Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), 08036 Barcelona, Spain
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Department of Health, Valencian International University (VIU), 46002 Valencia, Spain
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Maternal & Child Health and Development Research Network-Red SAMID Health Research, Programa RETICS, Health Research Institute Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu, 08950 Esplugues de Llobregat, Spain
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Departamento de Ciencias Sociosanitarias, Medicina Legal y Forense, Universidad de Murcia, 30003 Murcia, Spain
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Department of Neonatology, Hospital Clínic-Maternitat, ICGON, Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona Center for Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine (BCNatal), 08036 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors share co-first authorship.
These authors share last authorship.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 6109; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18116109
Received: 12 April 2021 / Revised: 17 May 2021 / Accepted: 2 June 2021 / Published: 5 June 2021
Kohl is a traditional cosmetic widely used in Asia and Africa. In recent years, demand for kohl-based eyelids and lipsticks has increased in Europe, linked to migratory phenomena of populations from these continents. Although the European legislation prohibits the use of heavy metals in cosmetics due to the harmful effects to human health, particularly to pregnant women and children, these elements are still present in certain products. The European Union recommended levels are Pb < 20 ppm, As < 5 ppm, Cd < 5 ppm, Sb < 100 ppm, and Ni < 200 ppm. In Germany, levels are more restrictive: Pb < 2 ppm, As < 0.5 ppm, Cd < 0.1 ppm, Sb < 0.5 ppm, and Ni < 10 ppm. Here, we analyzed 12 kohl-based cosmetics in different presentations (powder, paste, and pencil) that were purchased in Spanish and German local shops. An inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer was used to identify toxic elements and heavy metals. Levels of Pb ranged between 1.7 and 410,000 ppm in six of the study samples, four of which had levels above the recommended limit of at least two heavy metals. Arsenic (a carcinogenic element) values were within the range allowed by the EU in only 58% of the studied samples. Moreover, two products doubled this limit, reaching levels of 9.2 and 12.6 ppm. In one of the products, cadmium, related to toxic keratitis, was four times higher (20.7 ppm) than that allowed, while in two other products, these limits were doubled (11.8 and 12.7 ppm). Our results indicate the need to supervise the manufacture of kohl-based traditional products and the analysis of their composition prior distribution in European countries. View Full-Text
Keywords: kohl; cosmetic; toxic elements; heavy metals; lead toxicity; antimony toxicity; cadmium toxicity kohl; cosmetic; toxic elements; heavy metals; lead toxicity; antimony toxicity; cadmium toxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Navarro-Tapia, E.; Serra-Delgado, M.; Fernández-López, L.; Meseguer-Gilabert, M.; Falcón, M.; Sebastiani, G.; Sailer, S.; Garcia-Algar, O.; Andreu-Fernández, V. Toxic Elements in Traditional Kohl-Based Eye Cosmetics in Spanish and German Markets. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 6109. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18116109

AMA Style

Navarro-Tapia E, Serra-Delgado M, Fernández-López L, Meseguer-Gilabert M, Falcón M, Sebastiani G, Sailer S, Garcia-Algar O, Andreu-Fernández V. Toxic Elements in Traditional Kohl-Based Eye Cosmetics in Spanish and German Markets. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(11):6109. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18116109

Chicago/Turabian Style

Navarro-Tapia, Elisabet, Mariona Serra-Delgado, Lucía Fernández-López, Montserrat Meseguer-Gilabert, María Falcón, Giorgia Sebastiani, Sebastian Sailer, Oscar Garcia-Algar, and Vicente Andreu-Fernández. 2021. "Toxic Elements in Traditional Kohl-Based Eye Cosmetics in Spanish and German Markets" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 11: 6109. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18116109

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