Next Article in Journal
Causal Attributions in Breast Cancer Patients Planning to Undergo Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy
Next Article in Special Issue
Dog Walking before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdown: Experiences of UK Dog Owners
Previous Article in Journal
Urinary Metabolites of Organophosphate Pesticides among Pregnant Women Participating in the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS)
Previous Article in Special Issue
Sleep Quality and Physical Activity as Predictors of Mental Wellbeing Variance in Older Adults during COVID-19 Lockdown: ECLB COVID-19 International Online Survey
Article

Four Weeks of Detraining Induced by COVID-19 Reverse Cardiac Improvements from Eight Weeks of Fitness-Dance Training in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

1
Institute of Sport Science, Otto-von-Guericke University, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany
2
Interdisciplinary Laboratory in Neurosciences, Physiology and Psychology: Physical Activity, Health and Learning (LINP2), UFR STAPS, UPL, Paris Nanterre University, 92000 Nanterre, France
3
Physical Activity, Sport, and Health, UR18JS01, National Observatory of Sport, Tunis 1003, Tunisia
4
High Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Sfax, University of Sfax, Sfax 3000, Tunisia
5
German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), 39104 Magdeburg, Germany
6
Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty, Otto von Guericke University, Leipziger Str. 44, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany
7
Research Laboratory, Education, Motricity, Sport and Health, EM2S, LR19JS01, University of Sfax, Sfax 3000, Tunisia
8
Jozef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, 00-809 Warsaw, Poland
9
Exercise Science Research Center, Department of Health, Human Performance and Recreation, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA
10
Neurotrack Technologies, 399 Bradford St, Redwood City, CA 94063, USA
11
Center for Behavioral Brain Sciences (CBBS), Brenneckestraße 6, 39118 Magdeburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5930; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115930
Received: 22 April 2021 / Revised: 27 May 2021 / Accepted: 28 May 2021 / Published: 31 May 2021
Physical training is considered as a low-cost intervention to generate cardioprotective benefits and to promote physical and mental health, while reducing the severity of acute respiratory infection symptoms in older adults. However, lockdown measures during COVID-19 have limited people’s opportunity to exercise regularly. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks of Fitness and Dance training, followed by four weeks of COVID-19-induced detraining, on cardiac adaptations and physical performance indicators in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Twelve older adults (6 males and 6 females) with MCI (age, 73 ± 4.4 y; body mass, 75.3 ± 6.4 kg; height, 172 ± 8 cm; MMSE score: 24–27) participated in eight weeks of a combined Fitness-Dance training intervention (two sessions/week) followed by four weeks of training cessation induced by COVID-19 lockdowns. Wireless Polar Team Pro and Polar heart rate sensors (H10) were used to monitor covered distance, speed, heart rate (HR min, avg and max), time in HR zone 1 to 5, strenuousness (load score), beat-to-beat interval (max RR and avg RR) and heart rate variability (HRV-RMSSD). One-way ANOVA was used to analyze the data of the three test sessions (T1: first training session, T2: last training session of the eight-week training program, and T3: first training session after the four-week training cessation). Statistical analysis showed that eight weeks of combined Fitness-Dance training induced beneficial cardiac adaptations by decreasing HR (HR min, HR avg and HR max) with p < 0.001, ES = 0.5–0.6 and Δ = −7 to−9 bpm, and increasing HRV related responses (max and avg RR and RMSSD), with p < 0.01 and ES = 0.4. Consequently, participants spent more time in comfortable HR zones (e.g., p < 0.0005; ES = 0.7; Δ = 25% for HR zone 1) and showed reduced strenuousness (p = 0.02, Δ = −15% for load score), despite the higher covered total distance and average speed (p < 0.01; ES = 0.4). However, these changes were reversed after only four weeks of COVID-19 induced detraining, with values of all parameters returning to their baseline levels. In conclusion, eight weeks of combined Fitness-Dance training seems to be an efficient strategy to promote cardioprotective benefits in older adults with MCI. Importantly, to maintain these health benefits, training has to be continued and detraining periods should be reduced. During a pandemic, home-based exercise programs may provide an effective and efficient alternative of physical training. View Full-Text
Keywords: pandemics; training cessation; combined training; aerobic; strength; aging; physical activity; cardiovascular health; heart rate; HRV; performance; responsiveness pandemics; training cessation; combined training; aerobic; strength; aging; physical activity; cardiovascular health; heart rate; HRV; performance; responsiveness
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ammar, A.; Boukhris, O.; Halfpaap, N.; Labott, B.K.; Langhans, C.; Herold, F.; Grässler, B.; Müller, P.; Trabelsi, K.; Chtourou, H.; Zmijewski, P.; Driss, T.; Glenn, J.M.; Müller, N.G.; Hoekelmann, A. Four Weeks of Detraining Induced by COVID-19 Reverse Cardiac Improvements from Eight Weeks of Fitness-Dance Training in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 5930. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115930

AMA Style

Ammar A, Boukhris O, Halfpaap N, Labott BK, Langhans C, Herold F, Grässler B, Müller P, Trabelsi K, Chtourou H, Zmijewski P, Driss T, Glenn JM, Müller NG, Hoekelmann A. Four Weeks of Detraining Induced by COVID-19 Reverse Cardiac Improvements from Eight Weeks of Fitness-Dance Training in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(11):5930. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115930

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ammar, Achraf, Omar Boukhris, Nicole Halfpaap, Berit K. Labott, Corinna Langhans, Fabian Herold, Bernhard Grässler, Patrick Müller, Khaled Trabelsi, Hamdi Chtourou, Piotr Zmijewski, Tarak Driss, Jordan M. Glenn, Notger G. Müller, and Anita Hoekelmann. 2021. "Four Weeks of Detraining Induced by COVID-19 Reverse Cardiac Improvements from Eight Weeks of Fitness-Dance Training in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 11: 5930. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115930

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop