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Sleep Quality and Physical Activity as Predictors of Mental Wellbeing Variance in Older Adults during COVID-19 Lockdown: ECLB COVID-19 International Online Survey

by 1,2,†, 3,4,*,†, 1,2, 1,5, 1,5, 6, 7, 7, 7, 7, 8,9, 8,9, 1,5, 1,2, 5, 1,4, 10,11, 12, 12, 12,13, 14, 15, 16, 16, 17,18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 22, 22, 23, 6, 24, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 30,31, 1, 1, 1, 1, 5, 5, 12, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 43, 44, 44, 44, 45, 38, 46, 47, 48,‡, 49,‡, 50,‡, 51,‡, 52,53,‡, 4,‡, 3,‡ and 3
High Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Sfax, University of Sfax, Sfax 3000, Tunisia
Research Laboratory: Education, Motricity, Sport and Health, EM2S, LR19JS01, University of Sfax, Sfax 3000, Tunisia
Institute of Sport Science, Otto-Von-Guericke University, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany
Interdisciplinary Laboratory in Neurosciences, Physiology and Psychology: Physical Activity, Health and Learning (LINP2), UFR STAPS, UPL, Paris Nanterre University, 92000 Nanterre, France
Physical Activity, Sport, and Health, UR18JS01, National Observatory of Sport, Tunis 1003, Tunisia
Multimedia InfoRmation Systems and Advanced Computing Laboratory (MIRACL), Higher Institute of Computer Science and Multimedia of Sfax, University of Sfax, Sfax 3000, Tunisia
Institute of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Münster, 48149 Münster, Germany
Research Group Neuroprotection, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), 39120 Magdeburg, Germany
Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty, Otto-Von-Guericke University, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany
Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Médicas, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 20550-170, Brazil
Departamento de Fisioterapia, Faculdade Bezerra de Araújo, Rio de Janeiro 23052-180, Brazil
Department of Psychology, Health & Technology, University of Twente, 7522 Enschede, The Netherlands
Department of Psychology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 20123 Milano, Italy
Laboratório de Fisiologia do Exercício, Estácio de Sá University, Rio de Janeiro 20261-063, Brasil
Department of Sport Management, Faculty of Management, Canadian University of Dubai, Dubai 117781, United Arab Emirates
Faculty of Social Science, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin 34148-96818, Iran
Department of Health Sciences, Postgraduate School of Public Health, University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy
Laboratory for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada
Department of Psychology and Sport Science, University of Gießen, 35394 Gießen, Germany
Sports Performance Division, National Sports Institute of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 57000, Malaysia
Department of Sports Biomechanics, Moscow Center of Advanced Sport Technologies, 129272 Moscow, Russia
School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough E11 3TU, UK
Clinical Excellence Research Center, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Computer Science Department, University of Toulouse, IRIT-INP-ENSEEIHT (UMR 5505), BP 7122 Toulouse, France
UFR STAPS, UPL, Paris Nanterre University, 92000 Nanterre, France
Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, 17674 Athens, Greece
Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Thessaly, 421 00 Trikala, Greece
Consultant in Internal Medicine and Diabetes, MGM Muthoot Hospitals Pathanamthitta, Kerala 689645, India
Consultant Family Physician, CRAFT Hospital and Research Centre, Kodungallur, Kerala 680664, India
Faculty of Physical Education, Assiut University, Assiut 71515, Egypt
Institute for Sports and Sports Science, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, 76131 Karlsruher, Germany
Department of Health Sciences and Kinesiology, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30458, USA
PharmD, BCBS, PharmIAD, Inc., Savannah, GA 30458, USA
Institute of Social Science, Otto-Von-Guericke University, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany
FundeSalud, Department of Health and Social Services, Government of Extremadura, 06800 Merida, Spain
The E-Senior Association, 75020 Paris, France
Department of Health Psychology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9712 Groningen, The Netherlands
Sports- and Rehabilitation Medicine, Ulm University Hospital, Leimgrubenweg 14, 89075 Ulm, Germany
Department of Exercise Science, Yarmouk University, Irbid 21163, Jordan
Faculty of Physical Education, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan
PHCC, Primary Health Care Corporation, Doha 3050, Qatar
Digital Research Centre of Sfax, Sfax 3000, Tunisia
Laboratory of Neuropsychophysiology, Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences, University of Porto, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
Institute for Kinesiology Research, Science and Research Centre Koper, Garibaldijeva 1, 6000 Koper, Slovenia
Department of Psychology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart I UNICATT, 20123 Milano, Italy
Faculty of Physical Education, Jozef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, 00-809 Warsaw, Poland
Institute for Social Medicine and Health Economy, Otto-Von-Guericke University, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany
Exercise Science Research Center, Department of Health, Human Performance and Recreation, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA
UVHC, DeVisu, Valenciennes, LIRTES-EA 7313, Université Paris Est Créteil Val de Marne, 94000 Creteil, France
Centre for Intelligent Healthcare, Coventry University, Coventry CV1 5FB, UK
Hôpital Farhat HACHED de Sousse, Laboratoire de Recherche “Insuffisance Cardiaque”, Université de Sousse, Sousse LR12SP09, Tunisie
ASPETAR, Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha 29222, Qatar
Laboratory “Sport Performance Optimization”, (CNMSS), ISSEP Ksar-Said, Manouba University, Manouba 2010, Tunisia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work as first authors.
These authors contributed equally to this work as last author.
Academic Editor: Frank Eves
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 4329;
Received: 7 March 2021 / Revised: 15 April 2021 / Accepted: 16 April 2021 / Published: 19 April 2021
Background. The COVID-19 lockdown could engender disruption to lifestyle behaviors, thus impairing mental wellbeing in the general population. This study investigated whether sociodemographic variables, changes in physical activity, and sleep quality from pre- to during lockdown were predictors of change in mental wellbeing in quarantined older adults. Methods. A 12-week international online survey was launched in 14 languages on 6 April 2020. Forty-one research institutions from Europe, Western-Asia, North-Africa, and the Americas, promoted the survey. The survey was presented in a differential format with questions related to responses “pre” and “during” the lockdown period. Participants responded to the Short Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire, and the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results. Replies from older adults (aged >55 years, n = 517), mainly from Europe (50.1%), Western-Asia (6.8%), America (30%), and North-Africa (9.3%) were analyzed. The COVID-19 lockdown led to significantly decreased mental wellbeing, sleep quality, and total physical activity energy expenditure levels (all p < 0.001). Regression analysis showed that the change in total PSQI score and total physical activity energy expenditure (F(2, 514) = 66.41 p < 0.001) were significant predictors of the decrease in mental wellbeing from pre- to during lockdown (p < 0.001, R2: 0.20). Conclusion. COVID-19 lockdown deleteriously affected physical activity and sleep patterns. Furthermore, change in the total PSQI score and total physical activity energy expenditure were significant predictors for the decrease in mental wellbeing. View Full-Text
Keywords: pandemic; home confinement; lifestyle behaviors; wellbeing; aging pandemic; home confinement; lifestyle behaviors; wellbeing; aging
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MDPI and ACS Style

Trabelsi, K.; Ammar, A.; Masmoudi, L.; Boukhris, O.; Chtourou, H.; Bouaziz, B.; Brach, M.; Bentlage, E.; How, D.; Ahmed, M.; Mueller, P.; Mueller, N.; Hsouna, H.; Elghoul, Y.; Romdhani, M.; Hammouda, O.; Paineiras-Domingos, L.L.; Braakman-Jansen, A.; Wrede, C.; Bastoni, S.; Pernambuco, C.S.; Mataruna-Dos-Santos, L.J.; Taheri, M.; Irandoust, K.; Bragazzi, N.L.; Strahler, J.; Washif, J.A.; Andreeva, A.; Bailey, S.J.; Acton, J.; Mitchell, E.; Bott, N.T.; Gargouri, F.; Chaari, L.; Batatia, H.; Khoshnami, S.C.; Samara, E.; Zisi, V.; Sankar, P.; Ahmed, W.N.; Ali, G.M.; Abdelkarim, O.; Jarraya, M.; Abed, K.E.; Moalla, W.; Souissi, N.; Aloui, A.; Souissi, N.; Gemert-Pijnen, L.V.; Riemann, B.L.; Riemann, L.; Delhey, J.; Gómez-Raja, J.; Epstein, M.; Sanderman, R.; Schulz, S.; Jerg, A.; Al-Horani, R.; Mansi, T.; Dergaa, I.; Jmail, M.; Barbosa, F.; Ferreira-Santos, F.; Šimunič, B.; Pišot, R.; Pišot, S.; Gaggioli, A.; Steinacker, J.; Zmijewski, P.; Apfelbacher, C.; Glenn, J.M.; Khacharem, A.; Clark, C.C.T.; Saad, H.B.; Chamari, K.; Driss, T.; Hoekelmann, A.; on behalf of the ECLB-COVID19 Consortium. Sleep Quality and Physical Activity as Predictors of Mental Wellbeing Variance in Older Adults during COVID-19 Lockdown: ECLB COVID-19 International Online Survey. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 4329.

AMA Style

Trabelsi K, Ammar A, Masmoudi L, Boukhris O, Chtourou H, Bouaziz B, Brach M, Bentlage E, How D, Ahmed M, Mueller P, Mueller N, Hsouna H, Elghoul Y, Romdhani M, Hammouda O, Paineiras-Domingos LL, Braakman-Jansen A, Wrede C, Bastoni S, Pernambuco CS, Mataruna-Dos-Santos LJ, Taheri M, Irandoust K, Bragazzi NL, Strahler J, Washif JA, Andreeva A, Bailey SJ, Acton J, Mitchell E, Bott NT, Gargouri F, Chaari L, Batatia H, Khoshnami SC, Samara E, Zisi V, Sankar P, Ahmed WN, Ali GM, Abdelkarim O, Jarraya M, Abed KE, Moalla W, Souissi N, Aloui A, Souissi N, Gemert-Pijnen LV, Riemann BL, Riemann L, Delhey J, Gómez-Raja J, Epstein M, Sanderman R, Schulz S, Jerg A, Al-Horani R, Mansi T, Dergaa I, Jmail M, Barbosa F, Ferreira-Santos F, Šimunič B, Pišot R, Pišot S, Gaggioli A, Steinacker J, Zmijewski P, Apfelbacher C, Glenn JM, Khacharem A, Clark CCT, Saad HB, Chamari K, Driss T, Hoekelmann A, on behalf of the ECLB-COVID19 Consortium. Sleep Quality and Physical Activity as Predictors of Mental Wellbeing Variance in Older Adults during COVID-19 Lockdown: ECLB COVID-19 International Online Survey. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(8):4329.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Trabelsi, Khaled; Ammar, Achraf; Masmoudi, Liwa; Boukhris, Omar; Chtourou, Hamdi; Bouaziz, Bassem; Brach, Michael; Bentlage, Ellen; How, Daniella; Ahmed, Mona; Mueller, Patrick; Mueller, Notger; Hsouna, Hsen; Elghoul, Yousri; Romdhani, Mohamed; Hammouda, Omar; Paineiras-Domingos, Laisa L.; Braakman-Jansen, Annemarie; Wrede, Christian; Bastoni, Sofia; Pernambuco, Carlos S.; Mataruna-Dos-Santos, Leonardo J.; Taheri, Morteza; Irandoust, Khadijeh; Bragazzi, Nicola L.; Strahler, Jana; Washif, Jad A.; Andreeva, Albina; Bailey, Stephen J.; Acton, Jarred; Mitchell, Emma; Bott, Nicholas T.; Gargouri, Faiez; Chaari, Lotfi; Batatia, Hadj; Khoshnami, Samira C.; Samara, Evangelia; Zisi, Vasiliki; Sankar, Parasanth; Ahmed, Waseem N.; Ali, Gamal M.; Abdelkarim, Osama; Jarraya, Mohamed; Abed, Kais E.; Moalla, Wassim; Souissi, Nafaa; Aloui, Asma; Souissi, Nizar; Gemert-Pijnen, Lisette V.; Riemann, Bryan L.; Riemann, Laurel; Delhey, Jan; Gómez-Raja, Jonathan; Epstein, Monique; Sanderman, Robbert; Schulz, Sebastian; Jerg, Achim; Al-Horani, Ramzi; Mansi, Taysir; Dergaa, Ismail; Jmail, Mohamed; Barbosa, Fernando; Ferreira-Santos, Fernando; Šimunič, Boštjan; Pišot, Rado; Pišot, Saša; Gaggioli, Andrea; Steinacker, Jürgen; Zmijewski, Piotr; Apfelbacher, Christian; Glenn, Jordan M.; Khacharem, Aïmen; Clark, Cain C.T.; Saad, Helmi B.; Chamari, Karim; Driss, Tarak; Hoekelmann, Anita; on behalf of the ECLB-COVID19 Consortium. 2021. "Sleep Quality and Physical Activity as Predictors of Mental Wellbeing Variance in Older Adults during COVID-19 Lockdown: ECLB COVID-19 International Online Survey" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 8: 4329.

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