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Systematic Review

A Systematic Review about Imaging and Histopathological Findings for Detecting and Evaluating Electroporation Based Treatments Response

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Division of Radiology, Istituto Nazionale Tumori IRCCS Fondazione Pascale—IRCCS di Napoli, I-80131 Naples, Italy
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Oncology Medical and Research & Development Division, IGEA SpA, I-41012 Carpi, Italy
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Radiology Division, Università Degli Studi Della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, I-80143 Naples, Italy
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Italian Society of Medical and Interventional Radiology SIRM, SIRM Foundation, Via della Signora 2, 20122 Milan, Italy
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Hepatobiliary Surgical Oncology Division, Istituto Nazionale Tumori IRCCS Fondazione Pascale—IRCCS di Napoli, I-80131 Naples, Italy
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Radiology Division, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, I-50139 Florence, Italy
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Department of Radiology, UOC San Severo Hospital, 71016 San Severo, Italy
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Department of Pathology, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Zaloska cesta 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
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Department of Experimental Oncology, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Zaloska cesta 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
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Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ljubljana, Zdravstvena pot 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5592; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115592
Received: 23 April 2021 / Revised: 16 May 2021 / Accepted: 19 May 2021 / Published: 24 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Evolving Role of Diagnostic Imaging Service in Public Health)
Background: Imaging methods and the most appropriate criteria to be used for detecting and evaluating response to oncological treatments depend on the pathology and anatomical site to be treated and on the treatment to be performed. This document provides a general overview of the main imaging and histopathological findings of electroporation-based treatments (Electrochemotherapy—ECT and Irreversible electroporation—IRE) compared to thermal approach, such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA), in deep-seated cancers with a particular attention to pancreatic and liver cancer. Methods: Numerous electronic datasets were examined: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar. The research covered the years from January 1990 to April 2021. All titles and abstracts were analyzed. The inclusion criteria were the following: studies that report imaging or histopathological findings after ablative thermal and not thermal loco-regional treatments (ECT, IRE, RFA) in deep-seated cancers including pancreatic and liver cancer and articles published in the English language. Exclusion criteria were unavailability of full text and congress abstracts or posters and different topic respect to inclusion criteria. Results: 558 potentially relevant references through electronic searches were identified. A total of 38 articles met the inclusion criteria: 20 studies report imaging findings after RFA or ECT or IRE in pancreatic and liver cancer; 17 studies report histopathological findings after RFA or ECT or IRE; 1 study reports both imaging and histopathological findings after RFA or ECT or IRE. Conclusions: Imaging features are related to the type of therapy administrated, to the timing of re-assessment post therapy and to the imaging technique being used to observe the effects. Histological findings after both ECT and IRE show that the treated area becomes necrotic and encapsulated in fibrous tissue, suggesting that the size of the treated lesion cannot be measured as an endpoint to detect response. Moreover, histology frequently reported signs of apoptosis and reduced vital tissue, implying that imaging criteria, which take into account the viability and not the size of the lesion, are more appropriate to evaluate response to treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrochemotherapy; irreversible electroporation; radiofrequency ablation; imaging findings; histopathological findings electrochemotherapy; irreversible electroporation; radiofrequency ablation; imaging findings; histopathological findings
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MDPI and ACS Style

Granata, V.; Fusco, R.; Salati, S.; Petrillo, A.; Di Bernardo, E.; Grassi, R.; Palaia, R.; Danti, G.; La Porta, M.; Cadossi, M.; Gašljević, G.; Sersa, G.; Izzo, F. A Systematic Review about Imaging and Histopathological Findings for Detecting and Evaluating Electroporation Based Treatments Response. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 5592. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115592

AMA Style

Granata V, Fusco R, Salati S, Petrillo A, Di Bernardo E, Grassi R, Palaia R, Danti G, La Porta M, Cadossi M, Gašljević G, Sersa G, Izzo F. A Systematic Review about Imaging and Histopathological Findings for Detecting and Evaluating Electroporation Based Treatments Response. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(11):5592. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115592

Chicago/Turabian Style

Granata, Vincenza, Roberta Fusco, Simona Salati, Antonella Petrillo, Elio Di Bernardo, Roberta Grassi, Raffaele Palaia, Ginevra Danti, Michelearcangelo La Porta, Matteo Cadossi, Gorana Gašljević, Gregor Sersa, and Francesco Izzo. 2021. "A Systematic Review about Imaging and Histopathological Findings for Detecting and Evaluating Electroporation Based Treatments Response" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 11: 5592. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115592

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