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Open AccessArticle

The Use of Added Salt and Sugar in the Diet of Polish and Austrian Toddlers. Associated Factors and Dietary Patterns, Feeding and Maternal Practices

1
Department of Human Nutrition, Institute of Human Nutrition Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW-WULS), 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
2
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5025; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145025
Received: 8 June 2020 / Revised: 7 July 2020 / Accepted: 9 July 2020 / Published: 13 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behaviors, Food, Nutrition, and Human Health)
Children aged <2 years should not be given meals with the addition of salt and sugar due to health risks and to promote healthier dietary habits. The aims of this study were: to assess the prevalence of the use of added salt (AS), sugar (ASu) and both salt and sugar (AS&Su) in the diets of Polish and Austrian toddlers aged 12–24 and 25–36 months; to explore the sociodemographic and early nutritional factors associated with the use of AS and ASu; to investigate the difference in dietary habits and maternal concerns about toddlers’ eating regarding the use of AS and ASu in toddlers’ diet. This cross-sectional anonymous study was conducted in 5893 mothers of children aged 12–36 months, recruited through social media in 2017–2019. The questionnaire consisted of questions about sociodemographics, early feeding practices and current children’s nutrition (e.g., use of AS and ASu, food frequency questionnaire). Multivariate logistic regression and cluster analyses were applied. Austrian mothers more often used AS than mothers from Poland (at 2 years old: 74.8% vs. 52.8%; at 3 years old 87.4% vs. 74.4%, p ≤ 0.001), however Polish mothers were more prone to use ASu (at 2 years old: 34.7% vs. 27.7%; at 3 years old: 59.0% vs. 45.8%, p ≤ 0.001). In younger toddlers (12–24 months), the odds of using of AS, ASu, and AS&Su increased with toddlers’ age, when the mother was a multipara, was not currently breastfeeding, or had exclusively breastfed for 4–5 months. This risk decreased when older toddlers (25–36 months) were introduced to solids by baby-led weaning (BLW). Toddlers from both countries who consumed meals with AS or ASu more often a followed Western-like dietary pattern. Our study emphasizes the need for parental nutritional education when beginning to introduce solid foods. View Full-Text
Keywords: baby-led weaning (BLW); breastfeeding; complementary feeding; complementary foods; dietary patterns; infant feeding practices; maternal concerns; salt; sugar baby-led weaning (BLW); breastfeeding; complementary feeding; complementary foods; dietary patterns; infant feeding practices; maternal concerns; salt; sugar
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MDPI and ACS Style

Masztalerz-Kozubek, D.; Zielinska, M.A.; Rust, P.; Majchrzak, D.; Hamulka, J. The Use of Added Salt and Sugar in the Diet of Polish and Austrian Toddlers. Associated Factors and Dietary Patterns, Feeding and Maternal Practices. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 5025.

AMA Style

Masztalerz-Kozubek D, Zielinska MA, Rust P, Majchrzak D, Hamulka J. The Use of Added Salt and Sugar in the Diet of Polish and Austrian Toddlers. Associated Factors and Dietary Patterns, Feeding and Maternal Practices. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(14):5025.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Masztalerz-Kozubek, Daria; Zielinska, Monika A.; Rust, Petra; Majchrzak, Dorota; Hamulka, Jadwiga. 2020. "The Use of Added Salt and Sugar in the Diet of Polish and Austrian Toddlers. Associated Factors and Dietary Patterns, Feeding and Maternal Practices" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 14: 5025.

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