Pregnancy is a period of serial metabolic and hormonal changes in the woman’s body. Factors such as circulating adipokines affect the fetal period and may cause long-term changes in metabolic pathways at the cellular, tissue, or organ level. The nutritional status of the pregnant woman affects the course of pregnancy, delivery, and confinement, as well as the health of the offspring following birth and in subsequent years. Adipokine hormones essential for modulating metabolism during pregnancy include adiponectin and leptin. This study aimed to assess maternal anthropometric parameters and plasma concentrations of specific adipokines as predictive measures of newborn birth weight, birth length, and ponderal index. Anthropometric measurements (prepregnancy body weight and height) were obtained from 168 surveyed Polish women. Data related to the birth parameters of 168 newborns (body length and mass) were derived from clinical records. Circulating maternal adiponectin and leptin levels at birth were determined. Significant correlations between newborn birth weight and maternal prepregnancy body mass index (p
< 0.05) or maternal weight gain during pregnancy (p
< 0.05) were observed. Women with below normal weight gain during pregnancy were more likely to give birth to newborns with significantly lower birth weight than women with excessive weight gain during pregnancy (p
< 0.05). Maternal plasma concentrations of leptin were significantly related to prepregnancy maternal body mass index (p
< 0.05), and concentrations of adiponectin and leptin were significantly related to weight gain during pregnancy (p
< 0.05). However, they did not affect the birth parameters of the newborn.
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