Next Article in Journal
Unhygienic Practices of Health Professionals in Brazilian Public Hospital Restaurants: An Alert to Promote New Policies and Hygiene Practices in the Hospitals
Previous Article in Journal
Characteristics of the Family Support Network of Pregnant Adolescents and Its Association with Gestational Weight Gain and Birth Weight of Newborns
Previous Article in Special Issue
Social Inequalities in Environmental Resources of Green and Blue Spaces: A Review of Evidence in the WHO European Region
Article Menu
Issue 7 (April-1) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1223; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071223

Impacts of Road Traffic Network and Socioeconomic Factors on the Diffusion of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) in Mainland China

1
Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
2
Joint Center for Global Change Studies, Beijing 100875, China
3
State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
4
Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 30 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 5 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Achieving Environmental Health Equity: Great Expectations)
  |  
PDF [1372 KB, uploaded 5 April 2019]
  |  

Abstract

The 2009 pandemic influenza virus caused the majority of the influenza A virus infections in China in 2009. It arrived in several Chinese cities from imported cases and then spread as people travelled domestically by all means of transportation, among which road traffic was the most commonly used for daily commuting. Spatial variation in socioeconomic status not only accelerates migration across regions but also partly induces the differences in epidemic processes and in responses to epidemics across regions. However, the roles of both road travel and socioeconomic factors have not received the attention they deserve. Here, we constructed a national highway network for and between 333 cities in mainland China and extracted epidemiological variables and socioeconomic factors for each city. We calculated classic centrality measures for each city in the network and proposed two new measures (SumRatio and Multicenter Distance). We evaluated the correlation between the centrality measures and epidemiological features and conducted a spatial autoregression to quantify the impacts of road network and socioeconomic factors during the outbreak. The results showed that epidemics had more significant relationships with both our new measures than the classic ones. Higher population density, higher per person income, larger SumRatio and Multicenter Distance, more hospitals and college students, and lower per person GDP were associated with higher cumulative incidence. Higher population density and number of slaughtered pigs were found to advance epidemic arrival time. Higher population density, more colleges and slaughtered pigs, and lower Multicenter Distance were associated with longer epidemic duration. In conclusion, road transport and socioeconomic status had significant impacts and should be considered for the prevention and control of future pandemics. View Full-Text
Keywords: 2009 H1N1 pandemic; highway network; socioeconomic factors; spatiotemporal transmission; gravity model; network node centrality; spatial autoregressive model; mainland China 2009 H1N1 pandemic; highway network; socioeconomic factors; spatiotemporal transmission; gravity model; network node centrality; spatial autoregressive model; mainland China
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, B.; Tian, H.; Sabel, C.E.; Xu, B. Impacts of Road Traffic Network and Socioeconomic Factors on the Diffusion of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) in Mainland China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 1223.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top